ECE Departmental Seminar
Electroceuticals for Mapping and Modulating Gut Activity: Towards Closed-loop Management of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
Prof. Aydin Farajidavar
Electrical and Computer Engineering, New York Institute of Technology
Friday, 2/22/19, 11:00am
Light Engineering 250
Abstract: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility is coordinated by underlying bio-electrical events known as slow waves. High-resolution (HR) mapping of the slow waves has become a fundamental tool for accurately defining electrophysiological properties in gastroenterology, including dysrhythmias in gastric disorders such as gastroparesis, chronic nausea and unexplained vomiting, and functional dyspepsia. Currently, HR mapping is achieved via acquisition of slow waves taken directly from the serosa of fasted subjects undergoing invasive abdominal surgery.
As in cardiac electrophysiology, implantable pulse generators have been used for stimulating the stomach. Conventionally, two types of pulses have been applied for potential therapeutic effects for gastroparesis: short pulses (high frequency/low energy) and long pulses (low frequency/high energy). Low-energy stimulation is typically delivered with a pulse-width in the order of a few hundred microseconds, at frequencies ranging from 5 to 100 Hz, and may improve symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and bloating. High-energy stimulation (or pacing) is typically delivered with a pulse-width in the order of milliseconds (10-600 ms), at frequencies akin to the natural gastric frequency (i.e., 3 cpm). High-energy stimulation has demonstrated potential to pace slow waves and improve motility. Due to high energy consumption the latter stimulation method has not been widely used.
We have developed novel bioelectronics that can be used for HR mapping and modulating of the gut activity in small and large animals. These devices are implantable and can wirelessly communicate with a computer station to visualize the recorded signals in real time. Operator can also use the graphical user interface on the computer to modify the electrical stimulation parameters. The implant can be wirelessly recharged through inductive coupling transmission. The system has been validated in small and large animals. We have been able to map the stomach activity wirelessly in high resolution, and modulate the stomach activity in various paces. Also, we have used the system –with lower number of channels– to record slow wave signals from patients with gastroparesis. We are planning to integrate the mapping and modulating technologies into a closed-loop therapy, and to translate the developed technologies to human.
Bio: Dr. Aydin Farajidavar received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in biomedical engineering, in 2004 and 2007, respectively. He received the Ph.D. degree in biomedical engineering from the joint program of the University of Texas at Arlington and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas in 2011. He is currently an Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Director of Integrated Medical Systems Laboratory at New York Institute of Technology (NYIT). Before joining NYIT, he was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His research has been highlighted by American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE), Science Magazine, “Physiological Measurement” journal, the “Scope” Magazine, to name a few.
His research experience and interests cover a broad range, from Medical Cyber Physical Systems (implantable, wearable and assistive technology) to modeling biological systems. Dr. Farajidavar has authored more than 50 peer-reviewed journal and conference papers/abstracts. He has served as technical committee member for several international IEEE conferences. He serves as a member of MTT-10 Biological Effect and Medical Applications of RF and Microwave Committee.