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Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy: Background

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom with collaborators Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl published a framework for categorizing educational goals: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Familiarly known as Bloom’s Taxonomy, this framework has been applied by generations of K-12 teachers and college instructors in their teaching.

The framework elaborated by Bloom and his collaborators consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation.  Later changed The categories after Knowledge were presented as “skills and abilities,” with the understanding that knowledge was the necessary precondition for putting these skills and abilities into practice.  The revised taxonomy categories now include Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create.

Why Use Bloom's Taxonomy?

The authors of the revised taxonomy suggest a multi-layered answer to this question, to which the author of this teaching guide has added some clarifying points:

Objectives (learning goals or outcomes) are important to establish in a pedagogical interchange so that instructors and students alike understand the purpose of that interchange.

Organizing objectives helps to clarify objectives for themselves and for students.

Having an organized set of objectives helps instructors to:

  • “plan and deliver appropriate instruction”;
  • “design valid assessment tasks and strategies”;and
  • “ensure that instruction and assessment are aligned with the objectives.”

Bloom's Taxonomy Triangle

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Additional Bloom’s taxonomy resources to help create student learning objectives.


Mcdaniel, Rhett. “Bloom's Taxonomy.” Vanderbilt University, Vanderbilt University, 25 Mar. 2020,

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