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(*current group members)

Materials Process-Structure-Property Relationship: Functional Porous Metals and Alloys and Bicontinous Metallic Composites 

Chonghang Zhao*,   Lijie Zou*, Qingkun Meng *

Prepared by dealloying, the bi-continuous porous metals and alloys and metallic composites exhibit unique morphology and attractive physical and chemical properties. We utilize multimodal approach by combining advanced synchrotron-based x-ray characterization methods and electron microscopy to study their process-structure-property relationships. Our work investigated porous stainless steel made by liquid metal dealloying, and furthered the understanding on the failure mechanism in porous silicon for Li-ion battery. Recently, we introduced a new thin-film solid state interfacial dealloying method (thin-film SSID), and investigated the pattern formation mechanism. Applying SSID-thin-film to wider materials system with functional application is being investigated. The aims are to understand the underlying morphological evolution mechanisms and to develop applications based on their unique physical and chemical properties.


Figure – Study of thin film solid state Interfactial dealloying (left), with multi modal characterization (right).

Collaborators: H. Kato (Tohoku University), F. Chen (Wuhan University of Technology)

“3D Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Nanoporous Stainless Steel by Liquid Metal Dealloying”
Chonghang Zhao, Takeshi Wada, Vincent De Andrade, Li Li, Jeff Gelb, Garth Williams, Juergen Thieme, Hidemi Kato, Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2017), DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b04659
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"Imaging of 3D Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous Silicon Anode in Lithium Ion Battery by X-Ray Nano-Tomography"
Chonghang Zhao , Takeshi Wada, Vincent De Andrade, Doga Gursoy, Hidemi Kato,   Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart
Nano Energy, Volume 52 (2018), p.381-390, DOI:10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.08.009
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"Bi-continuous pattern formation in thin films via solid-state interfacial dealloying studied by multimodal characterization" 
Chonghang Zhao , Kim Kisslinger, Xiaojing Huang, Ming Lu, Fernando Camino,   Cheng-Hung Lin , Hanfei Yan, Evgeny Nazaretski, Yong Chu, Bruce Ravel, Mingzhao Liu and   Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart  
Materials Horizons, 6(19), 1991-2002, DOI: 10.1039/C9MH00669A  
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NSF CAREER Award 2018 

This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1752839

Joint Photon Sciences Institute (JPSI) fellowship

Stony Brook University News

BNL News

Study of Multiscale Porous Cu in Dealloying

Lijie Zou*

Porous metals have drawn great attention due to their superior properties and extensive potential applications in energy storage, catalyzing carrier, detectors, etc. The ability to design the pore size distribution is critical to control the properties for different applications. Using a combination of chemical dealloying and etching methods on a combination of solid-solution, intermetallic and phase-separated metallic composites, we can design porous Cu in different pore size ranges. The nano- sized, micron-sized and bimodal sized (both nano-/micron-sized) porous Cu have been fabricated from dealloying of Cu-Al, Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Al alloy precursors. In order to precisely control the structure of the porous Cu and explore the relationship of the microstructure between precursor alloy and porous structure, the surface morphology, chemical distribution and 3D morphology of different alloy systems have been analyzed using a combination of electron-based methods and synchrotron-based X-ray nano-tomography.

Figure - 3D X-ray nano-tomography reconstruction of a bimodal porous Cu prepared by chemical dealloying.

Designing Multiscale Porous Metal by Simple Dealloying with 3D Morphological Evolution Mechanism Revealed via X-ray Nano-tomography
Lijie Zou , Mingyuan Ge,   Chonghang Zhao ,   Qingkun Meng , Hao Wang,   Xiaoyang Liu, Cheng-Hung Lin , Xianghui Xiao, Wah-Keat Lee, Qiang Shen, Fei Chen,   Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2019), DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b16392
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Porous materials by vapor phase dealloying

Qingkun Meng *

Vapor phase dealloying (VPD), utilizes the saturated vapor pressure difference between constituent elements for selectively removing one of the components from an alloy at elevated temperature. By using this emerging and versatile method, we fabricated porous materials for structural and functional applications. We used synchrotron X-ray nano-tomography to characterize the 3D morphological factors such feature size, shape, tortuosity and curvatures. The aim of our study is to elucidate the process-structure-property relationships of this novel dealloying method.

Figure - 3D morphology of porous Cu prepared by vapor phase dealloying at different temperatures.

Sustainable Energy: Battery Studies with  In Operando Multi-modal Synchrotron X-ray Techniques

Cheng-Hung Lin*,   Chonghang Zhao*

We utilize synchrotron x-ray methods including x-ray microscopy, tomography/nano-tomography, diffraction and spectroscopy to study the morphological, chemical and structural evolution of energy storage systems under operational conditions. Systems of interest include Li-ion batteries, solid oxide fuel cells and more recently on Li-S batteries.  The aim is to better understand the complex, multi-length scale, heterogeneous phenomena in energy storage materials to further the functionalities of these systems.

Figure – Cu x-ray studies during cycling to study the structural, chemical and elemental distribution evolution in CuS-S hybrid Li-S battery electrode

Collaborator:  H. Gan (Brookhaven National Laboratory)

“Operando Multi-modal Synchrotron Investigation for Structural and Chemical Evolution of Cupric Sulfide (CuS) Additive in Li-S battery”,
Ke Sun, Chonghang Zhao, Cheng-Hung Lin, Eli Stavitski, Garth Williams, Jianming Bai, Eric Dooryhee, Klaus Attenkofer, Juergen Thieme, Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Hong Gan
Scientific Reports (2017), DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-12738-0
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 "Systems-Level Investigation of Aqueous Batteries for Understanding the Benefit of Water-In-Salt Electrolyte by Synchrotron Nano-Imaging"
Cheng-Hung Lin ,   Ke Sun , Mingyuan Ge, Lisa Housel, Alison McCarthy, Mallory Vila,   Chonghang Zhao , Xianghui Xiao, Wah-Keat Lee, Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Esther S. Takeuchi, Amy C. Marschilok,   Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart
Science Advances (2019)      (in press)

Understanding Corrosion Processes in Molten Salts

Arthur Ronne*


 Molten salts are a promising high temperature heat transfer fluid due to their high specific heat, relatively low cost, and ability to operate close to ambient pressure. This has incited interest for their use in molten salt nuclear reactors and solar thermal power plants. Since then, corrosivity has been identified as a key remaining hurdle to widespread adoption of MSRs. Molten salts provide a uniquely challenging corrosive environment as no passivating oxide layer can form. With a multimodal approach utilizing both X-ray synchrotron techniques, such as X-ray nano-tomography, along with electron microscopy techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy we can interrogate the three-dimensional morphology and chemical composition, providing insights into the fundamental kinetics and driving forces for corrosion in molten salts. Our results help to further knowledge of molten salt and alloy interactions.


  Figure-  3D morphology  reconstructed from Transmission X-ray Microscopy along with electron microscopy of nickel wire after immersion in molten salt .

This work was supported as part of the Molten Salts in Extreme Environments Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences



Cultural Heritage: Heterogeneity in Art Works with Synchrotron X-ray Analysis

Yu-Chung Lin, Bryan Conry

Working with museum scientists, we use synchrotron x-ray methods to investigate issues in the fields of cultural heritages such as degradation mechanism in oil paintings due to soap formation. The aim is to better understand the phenomena and changes in the complex, heterogeneous materials in hope to better preserve these precise & unique cultural heritages.


Figure – Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy shows elemental segregation in soap formation of Pb-Sn yellow paint from 15-th century artwork

Collaborator: S Centeno ( Metropolitan Museum of Art)

“Elemental and Molecular Segregation in Oil Paintings due to Lead Soap Degradation”,
Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart, Jaclyn Catalano, Garth Williams, Anna Murphy, Yao Yao, Nicholas Zumbulyadis, Silvia A. Centeno, Cecil Dybowski, Juergen Thieme,
Scientific Reports, 7:11656 (2017)
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Industrial Processes:   In Situ  Characterization of Material Evolution in Thin Films and Surface Treatment

Xiaoyang Liu*,  Hua Jiang

Working with industrial collaborators, we investigate the morphological, structural and chemical evolution in functional materials and processes, such as oxide thin films and anti-corrosion surface treatment. The aim is to utilize cutting-edge characterization tools such as in situ x-ray spectroscopy and imaging to help solving practical issues in manufacturing.


Figure – steel sample mounted in a liquid in situ cell to be investigated by in situ x-ray spectroscopic imaging

Collaborator: S. Petrash ( Henkel Corp.)

“Environmentally Induced Chemical and Morphological Heterogeneity of Zinc Oxide Thin Films”  
 Hua Jiang, Kang Wei Chou, Stanislas Petrash, Garth Williams, Juergen Thieme, Dmytro Nykypanchuk, Li Li, Atsushi Muto, Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart
Applied Physics Letters, 109, 091909 (2016)
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“Environmentally Friendly Zr-Based Conversion Nanocoatings for Corrosion Inhibition of Metal Surfaces Evaluated by Multimodal X-ray Analysis”
Xiaoyang Liu, Donald Vonk, Hua Jiang, Kim Kisslinger, Xiao Tong, Mingyuan Ge, Evgeny Nazaretski, Bruce Ravel, Kate Foster, Stanislas Petrash, and Yu-chen Karen Chen-Wiegart
ACS Applied Nano Materials 2019 2 (4), 1920-1929
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Support: Henkel Corp.

Materials Process-Structure-Property Relationship:   In Situ Studies of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing)

Cheng-Hung Lin*,  Olivia Chen* ,  Kevin Kucharczyk

Advances in 3D printing have allowed control of macroscopic designs with novel shape and functionalities. Our research goal is to enabling the control of meso-structures in 3D-printed structure, namely internal features on the order of tens to hundreds of nano-meters within the printed material. We study the dynamics of structural formation during the 3D printing and curing processes using in situ synchrotron scattering methods..


Figure – Using in situ synchrotron scattering methods, we study the dynamics of structural formation during the 3D printing and curing processes

Collaborator: L. Wiegart (Brookhaven National Laboratory), H. Gan (Brookhaven National Laboratory), D. Gersappe (Stony Brook U.)

Support: Energy Seed Grant, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University