Endowed Professor of Ocean Conservation Science
Executive Director, Institute for Ocean Conservation Science
- Indiana University
Ocean conservation, fisheries management, ecosystem-based approaches, marine protected areas (MPAs), endangered fishes, sharks, sturgeon
My work focuses on ocean conservation science, with emphasis on marine protected areas (MPAs), fish conservation and fisheries sustainability, ecosystem-based fishery management and endangered fishes. My contributions to advancing ocean conservation range from basic science innovations to achieving domestic and international policy change.
Marine Protected Areas have been a focal area of my work for more than two decades. In Belize, I developed and oversaw a research program to evaluate the effectiveness of Glover’s Reef Marine Reserve. That research demonstrated that reef shark abundance remained stable within the reserve for more than a decade, whereas shark populations outside the reserve declined dramatically. Prior to this study there was widespread skepticism about whether marine protected areas could benefit shark species. From 2014 through 2020 I served as scientific lead of the 10×20 initiative, a coalition of UN Member states that built political capital, helped secure funding and provided guidance for the establishment of marine protected areas around the world. The 10×20 initiative held a major conference in Rome in March 2016 that produced a Scientists Consensus Statement on MPAs, and a Call to Action that was jointly agreed by MPA experts and diplomats
Since the year 2000 the amount of ocean covered by MPAs increased more than ten-fold, with a large share of that increase occurring during the 10×20 campaign. In 2019 I co-authored a global study that identified high priority areas that may be considered for protection. And, in China, my team is assessing the extent, type and representativeness of marine protected areas in different regions of the country.
In addition to place-based MPA research, I am working on frameworks for effective MPAs including enabling conditions such as finance mechanisms sufficient to sustain MPAs, and effective and cost-effective management, enforcement and compliance methodologies.
Ecosystem-based fishery management is a holistic approach that emphasizes the integrity of marine ecosystems and the interconnectedness of species and habitats. I spearheaded the first scientific consensus on ecosystem-based fishery management, which was published in the journal Science in 2004 . To further understanding and practical implementation of ecosystem-based fishery management, I have explored the role that forage fish play in marine ecosystems, and the consequences of fishing these critically important species. In part, to achieve these broader goals, I chaired the Lenfest Forage Fish Task Force, an international team of 13 preeminent scientists whose mission was to develop consensus recommendations for forage fish management that recognized the critical role these species play in marine ecosystems. The task force conducted the most comprehensive global analysis of forage fish management to date, and successfully achieved its charge, releasing its report in April 2012. In less than a year’s time, the report, “Little Fish, Big Impact: Managing a Crucial Link in Ocean Food Webs,” began influencing policy decisions, both nationally and internationally, about forage fish management, including California’s ecosystem-based forage fishery policy adopted in November 2012.
I also focus research efforts on vulnerable and ecologically important marine animals, particularly sharks and sturgeons. Shark populations have declined dramatically due to destructive commercial fishing practices fueled largely by demand for shark fins. A paper I co-authored, “Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets” Ecology Letters, 2006 , estimated that between 26 and 73 million sharks are killed globally each year. These widely cited statistics have served to energize and propel the shark conservation movement. In 2008, the first book to focus on pelagic sharks and their plight, Sharks of the Open Ocean , which I co-edited, was published. This comprehensive compendium of the biology, conservation, and management of pelagic sharks and their unprecedented levels of exploitation furthered awareness of the threatened status of these sharks worldwide. I have helped pioneer sophisticated DNA-based forensics techniques and monitoring systems that enable shark species to be identified from a small piece of tissue, usually from a fin. Enforcement agents are now using these tools to detect and prosecute illegal sales of shark fins.
On a policy level, my work has contributed to better conservation of sharks, including passage of the U.S. Shark Finning Prohibition Act, finning bans implemented by several individual states, and regulation of the international trade in great white sharks under the Convention on International trade in Endangered Species.
Another extensively exploited fish on which I focus research efforts is the sturgeon. Most species of sturgeon in the United States and overseas are threatened with extinction due to relentless pursuit of their eggs, which are prized for caviar. Contributing scientific information on the status of these fish and associated trends has catalyzed conservation action. Research results of studies I have conducted have informed policy decisions such as the listings of both the Atlantic and beluga sturgeon under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and a U.S. ban on the sale of beluga caviar.
I founded and co-direct the Shinnecock Bay Restoration Program (ShiRP). ShiRP was developed in response to deteriorating environmental conditions in Shinnecock Bay, Long Island, caused primarily by overfishing and pollution. Our goal is to improve the ecological integrity of the bay by restoring shellfish and seagrass beds, which will result in increased population levels of fish and other wildlife, as well as a healthier environment. Our restoration work is informed by complementary scientific studies. Outreach and partnerships are important aspects of the restoration plan.
I have led several major oceanic field expeditions and served on many high-level scientific panels, including President Clinton’s Panel on Ocean Exploration, the Task Force on Environmental Sustainability commissioned by U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, and several committees of the National Academy of Sciences. Currently I serve on the Ecological Society of America’s rapid response team, the Seafood Watch Technical Advisory Committee, and as a Director of Fishwise.
For more information about my research and the Institute for Ocean Conservation Science, please visit: http://www.oceanconservationscience.org/.
Awards (recent selected)
- Elected Fellow, The Explorers Club , 2020
- Oscar E. Sette Award – Outstanding Marine Fishery Biologist, American Fisheries Society, 2016
- Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2015, for “distinguished contributions to the fields of fisheries and conservation science, particularly for development and application of quantitative methods to sustainably manage overexploited marine fishes”.
- Ocean Hero, Origins Magazine, April 2015.
- Award for Excellence in Public Outreach, American Fisheries Society, 2014
- Elected Fellow, American Institute of Research Biologists (AIFRB), 2014
- Food Visionary (2012) Selected by Whole Living Magazine (a Martha Stewart publication) in November 2012 as one of the visionaries who is changing the way we eat.
Selected Recent Publications
(For additional publications, please visit my Google Scholar citations page.)
Bohorquez JJ, Dvarskas A, Jacquet J, Sumaila UR, Nye J and Pikitch EK (2022) A New Tool to Evaluate, Improve, and Sustain Marine Protected Area Financing Built on a Comprehensive Review of Finance Sources and Instruments . Front. Mar. Sci. 8:742846. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.742846
Bohorquez, J.J., Xue, G., Frankstone, T., Grima, M.M., Kleinhaus, K., Zhao, Y., Pikitch, E.K. (2021). China’s little-known efforts to protect its marine ecosystems safeguards some habitats but omits others . Science Advances.
Kirsten Grorud-Colvert, Jenna Sullivan-Stack, Callum Roberts, Vanessa Constant, Barbara Horta e Costa, Elizabeth Pike, Naomi Kingston, Dan Laffoley, Enric Sala, Joachim Claudet, Alan Friedlander, David Gill, Sarah E. Lester, Jon C. Day, Emanuel J. Gonçalves, Matt Rand, Angelo Villagomez, Gabby Ahmadia, Natalie C. Ban, Georgina Gurney, Ana Spalding, Nathan Bennett, Johnny Briggs, Lance Morgan, Russell Moffitt, Marine Deguignet, Ellen Pikitch, Emily Darling, Sabine Jessen, Sarah Hameed, Giuseppe DiCarlo, Paolo Guidetti, Jean Harris, Jorge Torre, Zafer Kizilkaya, Tundi Agardy, Philippe Cury, Nirmal Shah, Karen Sack, Ling Cao, Miriam Fernandez, Jane Lubchenco. (2021). The MPA Guide: A framework to achieve global goals for the ocean. Science. 373 (6560): 1-10. Download for free at: https://www.science.org/
Cernadas-Martín, Sara, Konstantine J. Rountos, Janet A. Nye, Michael G. Frisk and Ellen K. Pikitch. 2021. Composition and intraspecific variability in Summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) diets in a eutrophic estuary. Frontiers In Marine Science 8, 522. Front. Mar. Sci., 11 May 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.632751
Gownaris, N. J., Santora, C. M., Davis, J.B., Pikitch, E.K. 2019. Gaps in protection of important ocean areas: A spatial meta-analysis of ten global mapping initiatives. Frontiers in Marine Science. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00650
Bohorquez, J. J., A. Dvarskas and E.K. Pikitch. 2019. Categorizing global MPAs: A cluster analysis approach. Marine Policy 108:103663, to read online click https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19304439
Bond, M., J. Valentin-Albanese, E. Babcock, M. Heithaus, D. Grubbs, R. Cerrato, B. Peterson, E. Pikitch, D. and D. Chapman. 2019. Top predators induce habitat shifts in prey within marine protected areas. Oecologia. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04421-0; to read on-line click: https://rdcu.be/bFxSD
Bohorquez, J. J., A. Dvarskas and E.K. Pikitch. 2019. Filling the data gap – a pressing need for advancing MPA sustainable finance. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 45, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00045
Gownaris, N. J., K. J. Rountos, L. Kaufman, J. Kolding, K.M.M. Lwiza, E.K.Pikitch. 2018. Water level fluctuations and the ecosystem functioning of lakes. Great Lakes Research 44 (6): 1154-1163 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2018.08.005
O’Leary, Bethan C., Natalie C. Ban, Miriam Fernandez, Alan M. Friedlander, Pablo García -Borboroglu, Yimnang Golbuu, Paolo Guidetti, Jean M. Harris, Julie P. Hawkins, Tim Langlois, Douglas J. McCauley, Ellen K. Pikitch, Robert H. Richmond, Callum M. Roberts. Addressing criticisms of large-scale marine protected areas. 2018. BioScience, biy021, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy021
Pikitch, E.K., P.D. Boersma, Ian L. Boyd, David O. Conover, Philippe Cury, Timothy E. Essington, Selina S. Heppell, Edward D. Houde, Marc Mangel, Daniel Pauly, Eva Plaganyi, Keith Sainsbury, Robert S. Steneck. 2018. The strong connection between forage fish and their predators: A response to Hilborn et al. 2017. Fisheries Research 198, 220-223.
Bond, M., J. Valentin-Albanese, E. A. Babcock, Debra Abercrombie, Norlan F. Lamb, Ashbert Miranda, E. K. Pikitch, and D. D. Chapman. 2017. Abundance and size structure of a reef shark population is maintained within a marine reserve for more than a decade. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Volume 576, pages 1-10 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12241
Rountos, K.R., C. J. Gobler and E.K. Pikitch. (2017). Ontogenetic differences in swimming behavior of fish exposed to the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. Vol 146 (5): 1081-1091.
Cao, L, Y. Chen, S. Dong, A. Hanson, B. Huang, D. Leadbitter, D. Little, E.K. Pikitch, Qiu, Y. Sadovy, U.R. Sumaila, M. Williams, G. Xue, Y. Ye, W. Zhang, Y. Zhou, P. Zhuang, R.L. Naylor. (2017). Opportunity for marine fisheries reform in China. PNAS 114 (3) 435-442.
Ojwang, W.O., K.O. Obiero, O.O. Donde, N.J. Gownaris, E.K. Pikitch, R. Omondi, and S. Agembe. (2017) Lake Turkana, The world’s largest permanent desert lake. In: Max Finlayson, Randy Milton and Crawford Prentice (Ed.) The Wetland Book: Distribution, Description and Conservation. Springer.
Geers, T.M. E.K. Pikitch, M.G. Frisk. 2016. An original model of the northern Gulf of Mexico using Ecopath with Ecosim and its implications for the effects of fishing on ecosystem structure and maturity. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 129: 319-331 (Available on-line 5 February 2014, doi10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.01.009).
Gownaris, N., E.K. Pikitch, W.O. Ojwang, R. Michener, and L. Kaufman, 2015. Predicting species’ vulnerability in a massively perturbed system: the fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya. PLoS ONE 10 (5) e0127027. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127027.
Rountos, K.J., M.G. Frisk, and E.K. Pikitch. 2015. Are we catching what they eat? Moving beyond trends in the mean trophic level of catch. Fisheries 40 (8): 376-385.
Pikitch, E.K. 2015. Stop-loss order for forage fish fisheries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (21): 6529-6530.
Feldheim, Kevin A., Samuel H. Gruber, Joseph D. DiBattista, Elizabeth A. Babcock, Steven A. Kessel, Andrew P. Hendry, Ellen K. Pikitch, Mary V. Ashley, and Demian D. Chapman. 2014. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks. Molecular Ecology 23 (1): 110-117.
Geers, T.M. E.K. Pikitch, M.G. Frisk. 2014. An original model of the northern Gulf of Mexico using Ecopath with Ecosim and its implications for the effects of fishing on ecosystem structure and maturity. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Available on-line 5 February 2014, doi10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.01.009.
Pikitch, E.K., Rountos, K.J., Essington, T.E., Santora, C., Pauly, D., Watson, R., Sumaila U.R., Boersma, P.D., Boyd, I.L., Conover, D.O., Cury, P., Heppell, S.S., Houde, E.D., Mangel, M., Plaganyi, E., Sainsbury, K., Steneck, R.S., Geers, T.M., Gownaris, N. and Munch, S.B. 2014. The global contribution of forage fish to marine fisheries and ecosystems. Fish and Fisheries 15(1), 43-64
Rountos, K.J., Yingzhong Tang, Robert M. Cerrato, Christopher J. Gobler, Ellen K. Pikitch. (2014). Toxicity of the harmful dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, to early life stages of three estuarine fish. Marine Ecology Progress Series 505:81-94.
Chapman, D. D., M.J. Frisk, D.L. Abercrombie, C. Safina, S.H. Gruber, E.A. Babcock, K.A. Feldheim, E.K. Pikitch, C. Ward-Paige, B. Davis, S. Kessel, M. Heithaus, B. Worm. 2013. Give shark sanctuaries a chance. Science 339 (6121): 757-757.
Pikitch, E.K. (2012) The Risks of Overfishing. Science. 338: 474-475.
Pikitch E.K., Rountos, K.J., Essington, T.E., Santora, C., Pauly, D., Watson, R., Sumaila, U.R., Boersma, P.D., Boyd, I.L., Conover, D.O., Cury, P., Heppell, S.S., Houde, E.D., Mangel, M., Plagányi, É., Sainsbury, K., Steneck, R.S., Geers, T.M., Gownaris, N., Munch, S.B. 2012. The global contribution of forage fish to marine fisheries and ecosystems. Fish and Fisheries. doi: 10.1111/faf.12004.
Doukakis, P., Pikitch, E.K., Rothschild, D., Rob, A., Amato, G., Kolokotronis, S. 2012. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation. PLoS ONE 7(7), e40907.
Pikitch, E.K., Boersma, P.D., Boyd, I.L., Conover, D.O., Cury, P., Essington, T. E., Heppell, S.S., Houde, E.D., Mangel, M., Pauly, D., Plagányi, É., Sainsbury, K., Steneck, R.S. 2012. Little Fish, Big Impact: Managing a Crucial Link in Ocean Food Webs. Lenfest Ocean Program. Washington, DC. 108 pp.
Bond, M.E., Babcock, E.A., Pikitch, E.K., Abercrombie, D.L., Lamb, N.F., Chapman, D.D. 2012. Reef sharks exhibit site-fidelity and higher relative abundance in marine reserves on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32983, doi:10.1371.
Estes, J.A., Terborgh, J., Brashares, J.S., Power, M.E., Berger J., Bond, W.J., Carpenter, S.R., Essington, T., Holt, R.D., Jackson, J.B.C., Marquis, R.J., Oksanen, L., Oksanen, T., Paine, R.T., Pikitch, E.K., Ripple, W.J., Sandin, S.A., Scheffer, M., Schoener, T.W., Shurin, J.B., Sinclair, A.R.E., Soulé, M.E., Virtanen, R., Wardle, D.A. 2011. Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth. Science. 333: 301-306.
Erickson, D.L., A. Kahnle, M. J. Millard, E.A. Mora, G. Bryja, A. Higgs, J. Mohler, M. DuFour, G. Kenney, J. Sweka, and E.K. Pikitch. 2011. Use of pop-off satellite archival tags to identify oceanic-migratory patterns for adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Ascipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchell, 1815. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 27: 356-365.
Doukakis, P., Babcock, E.A., Pikitch, E.K., Sharov, A.R., Baimukhanov, M., Erbulekov, S., Bokova, Y., Nimatov, A. 2010. Management and Recovery Options for Ural River Beluga Sturgeon. Conservation Biology. 24: 769-777.
Chapman, D., Babcock, E.A., Gruber, S.H., DiBattista, J.D., Franks, B.R., Kessel, S.A., Guttridge, T., Pikitch, E.K., Feldheim, K.A.. 2009. Long-term natal site-fidelity by immature lemon sharks. Molecular Ecology. 18: 3500–3507.
Camhi, M. D., E. K. Pikitch and E. A. Babcock, editors. 2008. Sharks of the Open Ocean: Biology, Fisheries and Conservation. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. 536 p.
McAllister, M. K., Pikitch, E. K. and E.A. Babcock. 2008. Why are Bayesian methods useful for the stock assessment of sharks? Pages 351-368 in M. D. Camhi, E.K. Pikitch and E.A. Babcock, editors. Sharks of the Open Ocean: Biology, Fisheries and Conservation. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
Pikitch, E. K., M. D. Camhi and E. A. Babcock. 2008. Introduction to Sharks of the Open Ocean. Pages 3-13 in M. D. Camhi, E. K. Pikitch and E. A. Babcock, editors. Sharks of the Open Ocean: Biology, Fisheries and Conservation. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
Skomal, G., E. A. Babcock and E. K. Pikitch. 2008. Blue and mako shark catch rates in U.S. Atlantic recreational fisheries as potential indices of abundance. Pages 205-212 in M. D. Camhi, E. K. Pikitch and E. A. Babcock, editors. Sharks of the Open Ocean: Biology, Fisheries and Conservation. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
Pikitch, E.K., Santora, C. and E. A. Babcock. 2008. New frameworks for reconciling conservation with fisheries: incorporating uncertainty and ecosystem processes into fisheries management. Pages 1177-1187 in J. L. Nielsen, J.J. Dodson, K. Friedland, T. R. Hamon, J. Musick, and E. Verspoor, editors. Reconciling Fisheries and Conservation: Proceedings of the Fourth World Fisheries Congress. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 49, Bethesda, Maryland.
Babcock, E. A., M. K. McAllister, and E. K. Pikitch. 2007. Comparison of harvest control policies for rebuilding overfished populations within a fixed rebuilding time frame. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27:1326-1342
Chapman, D. D., E. K. Pikitch, E. A. Babcock and M. S. Shivji. 2007. Deep-diving and diel changes in vertical habitat use by Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi. Marine Ecology Progress Series 344: 271–275.
Erickson, D., K. Kappenman, M. Webb, N. Ryabinin, A. Shmigirilov, B. Belyaev, G. Novomodny, A. Mednikova, E. Pikitch and P. Doukakis. 2007. Sturgeon conservation in the Russian Far East and China. Endangered Species Bulletin XXXII: 28-32.
Magnussen, J. E, Pikitch, E. K, Clarke, S. C., Nicholson, C., Hoelzel, A. R. and M. S. Shivji. 2007. Genetic tracking of basking shark products in international trade. Animal Conservation 10 (2):199–207.
Clarke, S., McAllister, M. K., Milner-Gulland, E. J., Kirkwood, G. P., Michielsens, C. G. J., Agnew, D. J., Pikitch, E. K., Nakano, H. and M. S. Shivji. 2006. Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets. Ecology Letters 9:1115–1126.
Chapman, D. D., Pikitch, E. K., and E. A. Babcock. 2006. Marine parks need sharks? Science 312: 527.
Babcock, E.A., Pikitch, E.K., McAllister, M.K., Apostolaki P. and C. Santora. 2005. A perspective on the use of spatialized indicators for ecosystem-based fishery management through spatial zoning. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62:469-476.
Chapman, D. D., Pikitch, E. K., Babcock, E. A. and M.S. Shivji. 2005. Marine reserve design and evaluation using automated acoustic telemetry: a case study involving coral reef-associated sharks in the Mesoamerican Caribbean. Marine Technology Society Journal 39 (1):42-55.
Pikitch, E.K. 2006. The gathering wave of ocean extinctions. Pages 195- 201 in State of the Wild, Volume 1. Island Press.
Pikitch E. K., Chapman, D. D., Babcock, E. A. and M. S. Shivji. 2005. Habitat use and demographic population structure of elasmobranchs at a Caribbean oceanic atoll (Glover’s Reef, Belize). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 302:187-197.
Pikitch E.K., Doukakis P., Lauck L., Chakrabarty P. and D.L. Erickson. 2005. Status, trends and management of sturgeon and paddlefish fisheries. Fish and Fisheries. 6:233–265.
Shivji, M. S., Chapman, D. D., Pikitch, E. K. and P. W. Raymond. 2005. Genetic profiling reveals illegal international trade in fins of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Conservation Genetics 6:1035-1039.
Babcock, E.A. and E.K. Pikitch. 2004. Can we reach agreement on a standardized approach to ecosystem-based fishery management? Bulletin of Marine Science 74:685-692.
Doukakis, P., Pikitch, E. K., Alpeisov, S. A., Baimukhanov, M., Sissengaliyeva, G., Melnikov, V., Yerbulekov, S. and S. Crownover. 2004. Caspian caviar and conservation: Kazakhstan’s Ural River beluga. Caucasus Environment 6(1):21-23.
Pikitch, E. K., Doukakis, P. and C. Santora. 2004. Caspian sturgeons and captive caviar production: understanding conservation benefits. Fish Farmer 27(3):31-33.
Pikitch, E. K., Santora, C., Babcock, E. A., Bakun, A., Bonfil, R., Conover, D. O., Dayton, P., Doukakis, P., Fluharty, D., Heneman, B., Houde, E. D., Link, J., Livingston, P., Mangel, M., McAllister, M. K., Pope, J. and K. J. Sainsbury. 2004. Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science 305:346-347.
Pikitch, E. K., Santora, C., Babcock, E. A., Bakun, A., Bonfil, R., Conover, D. O., Dayton, P., Doukakis, P., Fluharty, D., Heneman, B., Houde, E. D., Link, J., Livingston, P., Mangel, M., McAllister, M. K., Pope, J., and K. J. Sainsbury. 2004. Fishery Management and Culling. Science 396:1892.
Chapman, D. D., Abercrombie, D.L., Douady, C.J., Pikitch, E.K., Stanhope, M.J. and M.S. Shivji. 2003. A streamlined, bi-organelle, multiplex PCR approach to species identification: application to global conservation and trade monitoring of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Conservation Genetics 4:415-425.
McAllister, M.K., Pikitch, E.K. and E.A. Babcock. 2001. Using demographic methods to construct Bayesian priors for the intrinsic rate of increase in the Schaefer model and implications for stock rebuilding. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:1871–1890.
Babcock, E.A. and E.K. Pikitch. 2000. A dynamic programming model of fishing strategy choice in a multispecies trawl fishery with trip limits. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:357-370.
Pikitch, E. K., Huppert, D. D. and M. P. Sissenwine. 1997. Global Trends: Fisheries Management. American Fisheries Society Symposium 20. Bethesda, Maryland. 328 p.