Tennis for Two

Literature Review & Bibliography


“Visitors Day” was an annual community event at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, NY (today, BNL is co-managed by Stony Brook University).  Each division was expected to prepare an exhibition that showcased its current research and development projects. In the fall of 1958, the Instrumentation Division planned to display their cutting-edge contributions to science, including a sodium iodide detector, a multi-channel pulse height analyzer, and the Chase-Higinbotham linear amplifier. However, anticipating that the display would not be dynamic enough to generate interest, William A. Higinbotham and his colleagues began to brainstorm about ways to draw attention to it.

Inspiration soon arrived; after reading a manual that accompanied a Donner analog computer, Higinbotham formulated the idea of designing an interactive game, as he thought “it might liven up the place to have a game that people could play, and which would convey the message that our scientific endeavors have relevance for society.” He envisioned a two dimensional tennis game displayed on a screen (oscilloscope), one in which two players could control the volleying action of a ball being struck over a net. He conceptualized and sketched the plans for Tennis for Two in a matter of hours. It was an instant hit with attendees of all ages. After the series of Visitors Days concluded in 1959, the game was dismantled.

For Higinbotham this was just an isolated incident in a distinguished career as a physicist and electronics expert that also included time spent at Cornell University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Recruited from MIT in 1945 to work on the Manhattan Project, he developed the timing circuits for the first atomic bomb and witnessed the test detonation in Alamogordo, New Mexico. The following year he helped found the Federation of Atomic (later, American) Scientists. A passionate advocate of nuclear non-proliferation, he worked tirelessly to educate government officials and the public about adapting atomic energy for peaceful purposes and implementing safeguards on weapons of mass destruction.

In an unpublished interview with Dr. Robert Crease, Professor of Philosophy at Stony Brook University and Historian of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Higinbotham reflected on the game:

"Historically, it [Tennis for Two] goes back to the fact that I had, during World War II, had spent a better part of three years at MIT in the Radiation Laboratory working on radar indicator sets - which are cathode ray tubes - and so I developed, and had asked for a number of circuits including circuits to integrate and differentiate wave forms, which were used in analog computers in those days. So I was using my old experience from way back then and my experience since then designing circuits - and we had, as it says in that report - the laboratory had several analog computers and they [inaudible] a book which tells you how to do a bouncing ball and some other things. And I look at it and say, well, obviously, with this machine I can fix it so instead of having it pre- programmed, I can fix it so people can control it, you know, what’s going on - so it was a great invention, if you want to call it that, and it didn’t strike me as the least bit novel. All the circuits I used were circuits that have been used by people before, except for putting these hand controls in - and a game which would go with that."

Prior to Tennis for Two, there were few computer-based games. NIM and Chess were developed in 1951, followed by OXO or Noughts and Crosses in 1952. However, those games did not display motion or allow dual players to control the action. The October 1982 issue of Creative Computing generated much publicity and sparked lively debate when Higinbotham was credited as the inventor of the first video game. Many have argued against the validity of this claim, as “video” implies the use of a raster display device, e.g., a television. While the dialogue about the scope of the term “video game” continues, what is not disputed is the high level of technical ingenuity Higinbotham employed to design Tennis for Two.


Higinbotham’s computer game installed at BNL’s visitor’s day in 1958. 
(Photograph courtesy of BNL)

Higinbotham's game with the title, “Computer Tennis”, at BNL's visitor's day in 1959.
(Photograph courtesy of BNL)


Cover of Creative Computing Video & Arcade Games, Vol. 1. No. 1 (Spring) 1983.
(Magazine from the WHGSC at SBU)

Literature Review & Bibliography

American Physical Society. Website: This Month in Physics History, October 1958: Physicist Invents First Video Game.

Baer, Ralph H. Videogames: In the Beginning. Springfield, NJ: Rolenta Press, 2005, pp. 16-17.

Brookhaven National Laboratory. Website: The First Video Game?

Burnham, Van (Ed). Supercade: A Visual History of the Videogame Age, 1971-1984. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001,
p. 28, 60.

Chaplin, Heather and Ruby, Aaorn. Smartbomb: The Quest for Art, Entertainment, and Big Bucks in the Videogame Revolution. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 2006, pp. 34-40, 46, 50, 203.

Donovan, Tristan. Replay: The History of VIdeo Games. East Sussex, England: Yellow Ant, 2010, pp. 8-9.

Herman, Leonard. Phoenix: The Fall and Rise of Videogames, 2nd Edition. Union, NJ: Rolenta Press, 1999, pp. 7,11.

Huntemann, Nina B.  and Payne, Matthew Thomas (Eds.) Joystick Soldiers: The Politics of Play in Military Video Games. New York: Routledge, 2009, pp. 4-5.

Kent, Steven L. The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our lives and changed the world. New York: Three River Press, 2001, p. 18.

Mäyrä, Frans. An Introduction to Game Studies: Games in Culture. London: Sage, 2008, pp. 40, 58.

Neilsen, Simon Egenfeldt, Smith, Jonas Heide, Tosca, Susana Pajares. Understanding Videogames: The Essential Introduction. London: Routeldge, 2008, pp. 50, 248.

Nitsche, Michael. Video Game Spaces: Image, Play, and Structure in 3D Worlds. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009, p. 9.

Poole, Steven. Trigger Happy: Videogames and the Entertainment Revolution. New York: Arcade Publishing Inc., 2000, p. 15.

Whalen, Zach and Taylor, Laurie N. (Eds). Playing the Past: History and Nostalgia in Video Games. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2008, pp. 87, n2.

Wolf, Mark J.P. (Ed). The Medium of the Videogame. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001, p. xi.

Wolf, Mark J. P. (Ed). The Video Game Explosion: A History From Pong to Playstation and Beyond. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008, pp. xvii, 32.

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William A. Higinbotham

William HiginbothamAfter reading an instruction manual that accompanied a Systron-Donner analog computer, William Alfred Higinbotham was inspired to design Tennis for Two, the first computer game to utilize handheld controllers and to display motion. It was also the first game to be played by general public, in this instance, attendees of “visitors day” at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1958. Learn More »

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