Mission & Goals of the William A. Higinbotham Game Studies Collection


The recent inclusion of video game hardware and software within collections held by cultural institutions dedicated to the historical preservation of material and digital artifacts is of great importance for the documentation of historical innovation in computer engineering and hardware and software design. It is of equal significance to the history of video games, especially as said inclusion furthers an understanding and appreciation of technology within a social, cultural, and educational context.

The William A. Higinbotham Game Studies Collection contributes directly to the study of video games as popular culture and to their historical longevity. It is dedicated to collecting and preserving the texts and ephemera that document: the history of video games; and the work of early game innovator and Brookhaven National Laboratory scientist William A. Higinbotham, who in 1958 invented the first interactive analog computer game, Tennis for Two.

At Stony Brook University, the William A. Higinbotham Games Studies Collection contributes directly to the study of video games as popular culture and to their historical longevity, particularly within a U.S. context through our documentation of Tennis for Two as well as our curatorial strategies. Video games have made a profound impact upon popular culture. According to the Electronic Software Association, 67% of households within the United States play video and/or computer games. The average age player is 34 and has been playing games for well over a decade. Gamer demographics have also shifted significantly as women and girls constitute 40% of gamers while, in 2010, 26% of gamers are over the age of 50. Economically videogames have contributed hugely to the global economy with U.S. sales estimated at $10.5 billion in 2009. Culturally, video games have radically reshaped our engagements with play, social experience, daily life, art, learning, new media, and our understandings and practices of popular culture. Video games have become our everyday life as we experience them on our phones (42% of Americans play games on their mobile devices), online, at home, and increasingly within institutions of higher education. 

In terms of video games within institutions of higher education it is worth pointing out that games have surpassed the scholarly interests that students once held for popular culture in the traditional media of film and television. Our students, both undergraduate and graduate, are increasingly eager to study games. This scholarly interest is best evidenced by new degree programs and dedicated courses that have developed in recent years at U.S. universities. Major academic publishers have also developed book series to support academic interests in games. Despite many rich areas of intellectual interests, the emergent field of game studies has dedicated little attention to critical video game historiography. Game history remains restricted to populist texts and descriptive chronicles. Considerations of the changing status of games as artifacts and aged technologies and the growing community of game archives and preservation initiatives, especially in the wake of the Library of Congress’s “Preserving Virtual Worlds” project, and with University game labs, collections, and archives – Stanford University, University of Texas (Austin), University of Michigan (Ann Arbor), University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), and Stony Brook University – on the increase, game studies aversion to history is no longer obtainable. It is within such cultural institutions that the popular culture of video games and their history is being written, collected, exhibited, studied, and preserved. It is precisely within this context that the WHGSC aims to make a contribution to how game history is produced.

A philosophy that the WHGSC curators share is that through preservation strategies and curatorial models we gain a wider understanding of the video game not restricted to the game program, game-player interface, and display technologies. We come to see games as complex artifacts whereby every “part” – game engine, source code, platform, game schematics, console design, storage media, controllers, circuits, chips, boards, wires, buttons – as well as ephemera such as software box-art, arcade cabinet art, and marketing materials, to cite a few examples, possess significance and value for the documentation of social experience and popular cultural history. The WHGSC manages print formats, so that students and researchers will have direct access to “original” documentation for purposes of scholarly study and learning.


The archive supports the educational mission of Stony Brook University through its commitment to acquiring unique curricular resources that are accessible in perpetuity for the purposes of research, teaching, and learning across the University’s diverse colleges and schools.

We envision the WHGSC existing as a positive contribution to the SBU community, the greater SUNY and NYC-based university system, and scholarly and amateur video game archivists, researchers and journalists well beyond the region via the collection’s webpage. Specific projected outcomes include:

  • a research hub for the history and work of early game innovator and Brookhaven National Laboratory scientist William A. Higinbotham, as well as magazines, popular press and scholarly books, etc. Our collection is the only archive is easily accessible via public transportation to scholarly researchers from NYU, Columbia, Yale, Princeton, the CUNY system, and other institutions. Stony Brook University's prominent location near NYC makes the collection a desirable research location for academic, journalistic, amateur and independent scholars nationwide. The collection's website will also provide freely accessible historical and archival data;
  • an institutional archive that can integrate its offerings with the handful of other university-affiliated video game archives such as those at Stanford University, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, University of Texas at Austin, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Our collection is unique in that it is specifically curated toward the collection of print materials, and therefore offers a specialist vantage for video game historians while offering a significant contribution to the emergent community of University game collections.

The groups that will benefit from the William A. Higinbotham Game Studies Collection are tightly connected to our projected outcomes. These groups include:

  • undergraduates at Stony Brook University and the larger SUNY system involved in learning about and researching video games. Video games are excellent devices for educating students on challenging subjects such as cultural meaning, modes of representation, the significance of technology in everyday life, and historical methods. Students from all majors, regardless of their professional goals, benefit from learning about games in an academic setting that honors games as objects of play while questioning them as cultural artifacts. Furthermore, the WHGSC serves as an accessible research space for undergraduate students who imagine themselves working in academic games studies or video game production industries;
  • graduate students, faculty and researchers engaging with the technological and cultural history of gaming systems and their material culture;
  • the WHGSC will also collaborate nationally with other cultural institutions that collect, preserve, conserve, archive and exhibit videogame artifacts. While this collaboration will included the University archives/collections mentioned previously, the WHGSC has also established ties with the Museum of the Moving Image in Astoria, New York, the International Center for the History of Electronic Games at the Strong National Museum of Play in Rochester New York, and the prestigious Lemelson Center at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, home to the Ralph Baer archive.

In conclusion, the WHGSC will offer excellent digital and material research opportunities to a diverse range of interested parties: for undergraduates, the WHGSC may be the first opportunity they encounter to seriously engage popular culture; for graduate students, faculty and researchers, the Collection is a trove of rare and under-examined print materials; and for the larger local and national community, the WHGSC is a subtle link between collective interests in video games, technology, material culture, and popular culture. 


William A. Higinbotham

William HiginbothamAfter reading an instruction manual that accompanied a Systron-Donner analog computer, William Alfred Higinbotham was inspired to design Tennis for Two, the first computer game to utilize handheld controllers and to display motion. It was also the first game to be played by general public, in this instance, attendees of “visitors day” at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1958. Learn More »

tennis for two

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