The Garcia Center operates as a "laboratory without walls." As in the past, graduate, undergraduate, and high school students will have unrestricted access to all listed facilities. Post-docs at each campus will continue to oversee operation of the more complex instruments. Mini-courses will be introduced to familiarize students with the principles as well as the practical aspects of key instrumentation. In addition, videoconferencing and internet technology will be employed to allow remote access to major instruments, beginning with the TOF-SIMS at Queens College. Outside grants will defray a substantial portion of the maintenance costs. The listed national facilities are directly accessible to the PIs through existing collaborations and agreements.
Computational Facility: With the addition of two theorists to the MRSEC faculty, a 16-node parallel processing machine will be set up jointly by D. Gersappe of Stony Brook and Y. Shnidman of Polytechnic, to allow simulations of large system sizes and long time steps. This system will be remotely accessible, and use by all students and faculty will be encouraged. User friendly software for simulation of polymer kinetics and rheology will be developed during the grant
Imaging of Polymers in Liquids: We have one major instrument - a confocal microscope - to serve all participants. The confocal microscope can be used to produce video images of DNA chains on chemically patterned surfaces in the electrophoresis experiments. The chain dynamics can be compared to computer simulations of the effect of surface friction on chain mobility. We will design a temperature controlled stage to follow spinodal decomposition in polymer blends labeled with fluorescent probes. This will allow studies of the kinetics of surface mobility and phase transitions as a function of filler type, surface interaction, and constraint. A Leica Spectral TCS SP system has the requisite sensitivity and spatial resolution for these studies.
We have access to a unique "sensing mode" atomic force microscope located at LifeAFM, Inc., just a few minutes from the Stony Book campus (see letter from P. Hugh). This AFM, invented at Brookhaven National Labs, induces far less damage to sensitive specimens, and is capable of revealing, for example, the helical periodicity of DNA molecules. The instrument has strong potential for studies of "soft" or "sticky" molecules in buffer solution.
Imaging of Polymers on Solid Surfaces: The TOF-SIMS imaging capabilities at Queens College are strongly complemented by the addition of STXM and PEEM activities supervised by H. Ade of NC State. Prof. Ade received funding for a new STXM at the Berkeley ALS that will be optimized for application to synthetic and natural polymers. This microscope will be available within 18 months. He is an active co-PI of a team that seeks funding of a next generation PEEM that would be able to provide NEXAFS spectroscopy from 2 nm sized areas. We expect this new PEEM to be available within the next three years.
Upgrades: At Queens College, we will upgrade the Rheometrics ARES rheometer to allow for automated studies below room temperature, key to the studies of nanocomposite materials. To produce these materials in a manner consistent with industry practice, we will purchase a Brabender mixing apparatus suitable for quantities as small as 60 g. This apparatus allows for in-situ monitoring of viscosity, and will complement the full rheometry studies on the ARES rheometer. Polytechnic will upgrade a 6 year old Topometrix Explorer for routine and frequent analysis of freshly prepared surfaces.
STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT STONY BROOK
Polymer Thin Film Laboratory: Extensive surface imaging facilities include a Digital Nanoscope III AFM, and a Topometrix thermo-SPM. Associated capabilities include a liquid cell, external lateral force modulation, temperature control, and humidity control. Additional facilities include a Nicolet Magna-IR 760 E.S.P. optical bench spectrometer, a Mettler Toledo DSC 821 with vacuum cooling and heating, an Atomika 3000-30 SIMS, a temperature controlled contact angle goniometer, a Rudolph Ellipsometer, a Nicolet FTIR, a 1500X Olympus Nomarski microscope, photoresist spinners, vacuum ovens, and a KSV Langmuir trough.
Electron Microscopy Laboratory: A Philips CM12 STEM is equipped with a high brightness (LaB6) electron gun, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer, and parallel electron energy loss spectrometer, TV recording, and LN cooled and straining stages. Additional facilities include a Philips EM301 TEM, and an ISI-SX30 SEM with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer, a Robinson backscatter detector, and a Reichert Ultramicrotome .
Light and X-ray Scattering Laboratories: Facilities for diode, He-Ne, and argon ion lasers as sources. Sample chambers cover a range of temperatures (up to 400 C) and pressures (up to 6000 psi), and detection schemes include photon correlation, Fabry-Perot interferometry and Raman spectroscopy, as well as intensified CCD area detectors. DNA capillary electrophoresis instruments with laser induced fluorescence detection and video microscopy are employed. Additional facilities include a Perkin-Elmer DSC 7 station, a Rheometrics RSA-SL with x-ray modifications, an Instron 1440 testing machine, a dual-cell temperature jump apparatus, and a thermal optical system with a polarized microscope.
QUEENS COLLEGE OF CUNY
Polymer Characterization Laboratory: A new CAMECA TOF-SIMS IV is capable of 200 nm lateral resolution, 3 nm depth resolution, low temperature sample loading, -150 C - 600 C temperature controlled sample stage, and liquid Ga, Cs, and gas ion sources. Additional equipment includes an Atomika 3000-30 SIMS with Auger/ISS, a Dektak IIA surface analyzer, a Rudolph ellipsometer, a KRATOS ES3000 XPS, and a Rheometrics ARES rheometer
Shared facilities: These include a Mossbauer spectrometer equipped with an Austin Scientific 10-77K sample cryostat, a Hitachi S570 SEM with a PGT energy dispersive spectroscopy accessory, a JEOL 1200 TEM, an HP 5988A GC/MS, a resonance Raman spectrophotometer, and a Perkin-Elmer 3030 atomic absorption spectrometer.
COLLEGE OF STATEN ISLAND, CUNY
Preparative Facilities: Facilities include a LABCONCO #50800 glove box, HP Series 1050 and 1090 Variable Wavelength HPLCs, and a Hoeffer Equilibrium Dialysis apparatus.
Materials Characterization Facilities: These include 600 MHz, 300 MHz, and 200 MHz Unity Solid State NMR, a Bruker ESP 380E FT-EPR, a Water Instruments 150(HT) gel permeation chromatograph with triple detectors, a Brookhaven 9000 AT dynamic light scattering apparatus, Jupiter Instruments membrane and vapor phase osmometers, a DuPont Thermal Analyzer 2100 with DSC, DTA, TGA, TMA, a Philips CM 100 electron microscope, a Wyatt DAWN DSP multiple angle laser light scattering spectrometer with high temperature capability, a Nicolet 550-FTIR spectrometer, and a Varian IE UV-Vis spectrometer.
Polymer Synthesis Laboratory: A newly renovated synthetic laboratory contains 10 hoods, a glove box, a refrigerated centrifuge, and solvent distillation facilities.
Surface Science Laboratory: Facilities include a Nicolet FT Infrared Spectrometer, a Topometrix Explorer AFM, a QCM apparatus, a Rame Hart contact angle goniometer, ellipsometer, a JKR apparatus in an environmental chamber with temperature and humidity control, a high vacuum evaporator, clean hoods, and UV ozone and argon plasma cleaners.
Department Facilities: The Department has a thermal analysis laboratory, spectrometers for fluorescence, IR, and UV/VIS spectroscopy, circular dichroism, NMR, X-ray and particle analyzers, light scattering facilities, polymer MW fractionation, SEM and TEM.
Brookhaven NSLS: SAXS and WAXD are performed on the Advanced Polymer Beamline X27C and on SUNY Beamline X3, equipped with Kratky block slit collimators, a channel cut crystal collimator, double focusing mirror, and an imaging plate detector. Collimators and instrumentation for fibers and textiles are available. X-ray reflectivity is available on beamlines X22 and X10. Beamline X10 has ports for EXAFS, EXANES, and small angle scattering under shear. Prof. Chu is a member of the Executive Committee of the SUNY Beamline and an alternate spokesperson for the APB at NSLS. There are presently only two Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopes(STXM), one at NSLS and one at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Both can perform NEXAFS microscopy with high spatial resolution (30-100 nm) and high energy resolution (<150 meV). Prof. Ade is a member of both operating teams.
ALS: In addition to the aforementioned STXM, Prof. Ade has access to a high spatial resolution (30 nm) X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscope (X-PEEM) at the ALS.
NIST: Reflectivity experiments are performed at NIST in collaboration with S. Satija (see letter) and the Exxon SAN Consortium. A horizontal neutron reflection spectrometer can study thin film structure at the air/liquid and liquid/solid interfaces, and is equipped with an LB trough and shear cell. A high pressure cell is employed for studies of super-critical fluid interfaces.
APS: Prof's Chu, Rafailovich, and Sokolov are co-PIs at ChemMat CARS at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, where they collaborate extensively with S. Sinha.