Carlos Simmerling, Marsha Laufer Professor of Physical and Quantitative Biology
B.A., 1991, University of Illinois at Chicago
Ph.D., 1994, University of Illinois at Chicago
Postdoctoral Researcher, University of California, San Francisco, 1994-1998
Fellow, American Chemical Society
537 Chemistry / 119 Laufer Center
Phone: (631) 632-7950
Computational Structural Biology
The Simmerling lab at Stony Brook University carries out research in the area of computational structural biology. In particular, the lab focuses on understanding how dynamic structural changes are involved in the behavior of biomolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. Recent advances in computer hardware and simulation algorithms have established computational methods as a robust and important component of biomolecular research. These simulations are highly complementary to experimental tools, and methods such as molecular dynamics simulation are able to provide a detailed description of the motions of individual atoms over short timescales that are typically inaccessible to experiment. Simulations are not limited to the averages over time and over large numbers of molecules that prevent crystallographic or NMR experiments from characterizing transiently populated conformations such as important intermediates in multi-step conformational changes. In additional to direct dynamics, treatment of simulation data using statistical mechanics can provide valuable thermodynamic properties such as binding affinities or the free energy profiles resulting from conformational changes.
In addition to projects related to specific biological problems, much of the research in the Simmerling lab focuses on the development of new methods for biomolecular simulation. The Simmerling lab develops the Amber simulation package in collaboration with several other research groups. Of particular interest are development of new methods for efficient simulation of conformational changes and development and validation of the molecular mechanics force fields that determine the accuracy of the resulting simulation data.
Improved Simulation Methodologies: Better Force Fields
Simulations based on classical mechanical force fields can expose dynamics on the femtosecond to microsecond timescales. However, the force fields and solvent models used must be accurate enough for the conformations observed to correspond to those in reality. The Simmerling Lab develops atomic-detail energy functions that are among the most accurate models currently available for protein dynamics. These include the widely used Amber "SB" (Stony Brook) force fields, such as ff99SB and ff14SB.
Improved Simulation Methodologies: Better Implicit Solvent Models
A key problem in computational chemistry and biology is modeling the solvent. Solvation and desolvation usually involve large free-energy driving forces. There are two main ways water is currently modeled. (1) In explicit solvent, individual water molecules are included atomistically. Explicit solvent is the current gold standard in terms of physical accuracy, but it is computationally expensive—often prohibitively so. (2) In implicit solvent, such as the semi-analytical generalized Born model (GB), water is treated more simply as a dielectric continuum. Also, sampling of global motions is enhanced considerably due to lack of viscosity. Implicit solvent dramatically reduces the computational cost of the popular REMD sampling method (see Aim 2), with fewer replicas, simulated for shorter times.This is much faster, but can lack accuracy. Our group works on developing improved implicit solvent treatments for proteins and nucleic acids, as well as hybrid explicit/implicit solvent models.
Improved Simulation Methodologies: Conformational Sampling
The single largest roadblock to reliable calculations of structures and relative free energies for complex biomolecular systems is the sampling problem. The number of possible conformations for a flexible molecule increases exponentially with the number of rotatable bonds, rapidly exceeding the number which can realistically be evaluated. Overcoming the sampling limitation would have a tremendous impact on our ability to make significant contributions in many areas, such as docking of flexible ligands, refinement of structures with low resolution or incomplete data, quantitative calculation of effects of amino acid mutations on protein stability, assisting in the engineering of modified or new functions for enzymes and catalytic antibodies, and eventually, the "holy grail" of computational structural biology, the prediction of accurate three-dimensional protein structures from only sequence data. The methods that we develop and use must be compatible with the highest quality representations of the system, such as atomic detail, explicit solvation and accurate treatment of the long-range electrostatics that are critical in simulations of highly charged molecules such as DNA and RNA.
While the accurate prediction of structures from sequence data alone is a long-term goal, current projects involve the application of new sampling techniques to the study of systems where at least some data is available. Sources of this data include structures of homologous proteins, low-resolution or incomplete experimental data (such as that from X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy), or low-resolution protein structure predictions from methods that forego atomic detail and explicit solvation.
Biomolecules undergo constant structural changes as they perform their functions. These changes range from small fluctuations of ligands bound tightly to a receptor, to larger but transient breathing events, and even adoption of completely different tertiary structures as occurs during protein folding. In the Simmerling group, we are interested in gaining insight into the biophysics of these changes, the interactions that drive them, and how they are modified in cases of disease or drug resistance. Since most experimental techniques provide averages over time and/or macroscopic numbers of molecules, we use a wide range of computer simulation methods to model these systems and understand the coupling between structure, energy, and dynamics. Each of our projects is closely coupled to experimental work by our collaborators.
Many biological molecules, including important drug targets, change conformation as they perform their function. We aim to understand these dynamic events, and to investigate whether targeting the mechanism of conformational change may be more effective therapeutic than the design of inhibitors that mimic the substrate’s chemical properties. The is especially important in cases like HIV-1 protease, where it is believed that drug resistance arises from mutations that change the flexibility of the enzyme, making inhibitors less potent while maintaining function. We have published a series of papers on this important model system, including studies that revealed the opening mechanism, demonstrated that crystal packing can provide misleading structural data, showed how ligands can gain access to the binding site and inactivate the enzyme, and provided new insight into how multi-drug resistance arises from mutations that modulate protease dynamics.
Another example of our research is the recognition of specific DNA sequences by enzymes involved in transcription, translation and repair of DNA. Although the integrity of DNA is essential to maintaining an organism’s genetic code, DNA is continually undergoing a process of damage and repair (thousands of times a day in each cell). While some types of damage involve large and bulky adducts, others involve minor chemical changes that do not appear at first to have a significant impact on DNA structure or stability. We use simulations to help understand how DNA repair enzymes can recognize damaged bases from a vast excess of normal DNA, bind to them with striking specificity, and repair the damage.
Rational modulation of the induced-fit conformational change for slow-onset inhibition
in M. tuberculosis InhA
Lai, C-T; Li, H; Yu, W; Shah, S; Bommineni, G; Perrone, V; Garcia-Diaz, M; Tonge, P; Simmerling, C., Biochemistry, 2015, 54 (30), 4683-4691
ff14SB: Improving the accuracy of protein side chain and backbone parameters from
Maier, J., Martinez, C., Kasavajhala, K., Wickstrom, L., Hauser, K., Simmerling, C.,Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2015, 11 (8), 3696-3713
Refinement of Generalized Born Implicit Solvation Parameters for Nucleic Acids and
Their Complexes with Proteins
Nguyen, H., Pérez, A., Bermeo, S., Simmerling, C., Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2015, 11 (8), 3714-3728
Active destabilization of base pairs by a DNA glycosylase wedge initiates damage recognition
Kuznetsov, N. A., Bergonzo, C., Campbell, A. J., Li, H., Mechetin, G. V., de los Santos, C., Grollman, A. P., Fedorova, O. S., Zharkov, D. O., Simmerling, C.,Nucleic Acids Research, 2015, 43 (1), 272-281
Folding Simulations for Proteins with Diverse Topologies Are Accessible in Days with
a Physics-Based Force Field and Implicit Solvent
Nguyen, H., Maier, J., Huang, H., Perrone, V., Simmerling, C., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2014, 136 (40), 13959-13962
The Role of Select Subtype Polymorphisms on HIV-1 Protease Conformational Sampling
Huang, X., Britto, M., Kear, J., Boone, C., Rocca, J., Simmerling, C., McKenna, R., Bieri, M., Gooley, P., Dunn, B. and Fanucci, G., Journal of Biological Chemistry,2014, 289, 17203-17214
A structural and energetic model for the slow-onset inhibition of the Mycobacterium
tuberculosis enoyl-ACP reductase InhA
Li, H.; Lai, C.; Pan, P.; Yu, W.; Liu, N.; Bommineni, G.; Garcia-Diaz, M.;Simmerling, C. .; Tonge, PJ., ACS Chemical Biology, 2014, 9, (4), 986–993
Time-Dependent Diaryl Ether Inhibitors of InhA: Structure–Activity Relationship Studies
of Enzyme Inhibition, Antibacterial Activity, and in vivo Efficacy
Pan, P., Knudson, SE, Bommineni, GR, Li, H., Lai, C., Liu, N., Garcia-Diaz, M.,Simmerling, C., Patil, SS, Slayden, RA, Tonge, PJ., ChemMedChem, 2014, 9, (4), 776–791
Ultrafast Structural Dynamics of BlsA, a Photoreceptor from the Pathogenic Bacterium
Brust, R., Haigney, A., Lukacs, A., Gil., A., Hossain, S., Addison, K., Lai, CT, Towrie, M., Greetham, GM, Clark, IP, Illarionov, B., Bacher, A., Kim, RR, Fischer, M., Simmerling, C., Meech, SR and Tonge, PJ,J. Phys. Chem. Lett, 2014, 5, 220-224
Improved Generalized Born Solvent Model Parameters for Protein Simulations
Nguyen, H., Roe, D. R., Simmerling, C., Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2013, 9 (4), 2020-2034
Development of an Automated Event Detection Algorithm for HIV-1 Protease’s Flap Backbone
Gee, J., Weaver, E., Shang, Y., Simmerling, C., J. Expt. Sec. Sci., 2013, 2(4)
Thiolactomycin-based beta-Ketoacyl-AcpM Synthase A (KasA) Inhibitors: Fragment-Based
Inhibitor Discovery Using Transient One-Dimensional Nuclear Overhauser Effect NMR
Kapilashrami, K; Bommineni, G; Machutta, C; Kim, P; Lai, C; Simmerling, C; Picart, F; Tonge, PJ, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2013, 288 , 6045-6052
Backbone 1H, 13C, and 15N Chemical Shift Assignment for HIV-1 Protease Subtypes and Multi-Drug Resistant Variant MDR 769
Huang, X., Veloro, A., De Vera, I., Rocca, J., Simmerling, C., Dunn, B. and Fanucci, G., Biomolecular NMR Assignments, 2013, 7(2), 199-202
Inhibitor-Induced Conformational Shifts and Ligand-Exchange Dynamics for HIV-1 Protease
Measured by Pulsed EPR and NMR Spectroscopy
Huang, X; de Vera, IMS; Veloro, AM; Blackburn, ME; Kear, JL; Carter, JD; Rocca, JR; Simmerling, C; Dunn, BM; Fanucci, GE, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2012, 116, 14235-14244
Structural Transitions of Transmembrane Helix 6 in the Formation of Metarhodopsin
Eilers M, Goncalves J, Ahuja S, Kirkup C, Hirshfeld A, Simmerling C., Reeves P, Sheves M, Smith S., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2012, 116, 10477-10489
Molecular dynamics applied in drug discovery: the case of HIV-1 protease
Shang, Y. and Simmerling, C., Computational Drug Discovery and Design, 2012,819, 527-549
CoA Adducts of 4-Oxo-4-phenylbut-2-enoates: Inhibitors of MenB from the M. tuberculosis
Menaquinone Biosynthesis Pathway
Li, x., Liu, N., Zhang, H., Knudson, S., Li, H., Lai, C., Simmerling, C., Slayden, R and Tonge, P., Med. Chem. Letters, 2011, 2, 818-823
Energetic Preference of 8-oxoG Eversion Pathways in a DNA Glycosylase
Bergonzo, C., Campbell, A., de los Santos, C., Grollman, A and Simmerling, C.,Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2011, 133, 14504–14506
An Overview of String-Based Path Sampling Methods
Bergonzo, C. and Simmerling, C., Annual Report in Computational Chemistry,2011, 7, 89-97
Improving the description of salt bridge strength and geometry in a Generalized Born
Shang, Y., Nguyen, H., Wickstrom, L., Okur, A. and Simmerling, C., JJ. Mol. Graphics & Model., 2011, 29, 676-684
Synthesis and Molecular Modeling of a Nitrogen Mustard DNA Interstrand Crosslink
Guainazzi, A., Campbell, A. J., Angelov, T., Simmerling, C., Schärer, O. D.
Chemistry A European Journal, 2010, 16, 12100-12103
An Improved Reaction Coordinate for Nucleic Acid Base Flipping Studies
Song, K., Campbell, A., Bergonzo, C., de los Santos, C., Grollman, A., Simmerling, C.
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2009, 5 (11), 3105-3113
A Partial Nudged Elastic Band Implementation for Use with Large or Explicitly Solvated
Bergonzo, C., Campbell, A., Walker, R., Simmerling, C.
International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 2009, 109, 3781-3790
Studies of Drug Resistance and the Dynamic Behavior of HIV-1 Protease through Molecular
Ding, F. and Simmerling, C.
Drug Design: Structure and Ligand-Based Approaches, Cambridge University Press, 87-97, 2010
Drug Pressure Selected Mutations in HIV-1 Protease Alter Flap Conformations
Galiano, L., Ding, F., Veloro, A., Blackburn, M., Simmerling, C.and Fanucci, G.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2009, 131 (2), 430-431
Recent Advances in the Study of the Bioactive Conformation of Taxol
Sun, L., Simmerling, C. and Ojima, I.
ChemMedChem, 2009, 4, 719-731
Evaluating the Performance of the FF99SB Force Field Based on NMR Scalar Coupling
Wickstrom, L., Okur, A. and Simmerling, C.
Biophysical Journal, 2009, 97 (3), 853-856
Structural Insights for Designed Alanine-rich Helices: Comparing NMR Helicity Measures
and Conformational Ensembles from Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Song, K., Stewart, J., Fesinmeyer, M. Andersen, N., Simmerling, C.
Biopolymers, 2008, 89, 747-760
Solution Structure of HIV-1 Protease Flaps Probed by Comparison of Molecular Dynamics
Simulation Ensembles and EPR Experiments
Ding, F., Layten, M., Simmerling, C.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008, 130 (23), 7184-7185
Evaluation of salt bridge structure and energetics in peptides using explicit, implicit
and hybrid solvation models
Okur, A., Wickstrom, L. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2008, 4 (3), 488-498
Molecular simulations reveal a common binding mode for glycosylase binding of oxidatively
damaged DNA lesions
Song, K., Kelso, C., de los Santos, C., Grollman, A. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2007, 129 (47), 14536-14537
Molecular Mechanics Parameters for the FapydG DNA lesion
Song, K., Hornak, V., de los Santos, C., Grollman, A. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2007, 29, 17-23
Reconciling the Solution and X-ray Structures of the Villin Headpiece Helical Subdomain:
Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Double Mutant Cycles Reveal a Stabilizing Cation-Pi
Wickstrom, L., Bi, Y., Hornak, V., Raleigh, D. and Simmerling, C.
Biochemistry, 2007, 46 (12), 3624-3634
Coupling of Replica Exchange Simulations to a non-Boltzmann structure reservoir
Roitberg, A., Okur, A. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2007, 111 (10), 2415-2418
Secondary Structure Bias in Generalized Born Solvent Models: Comparison of Conformational
Ensembles and Free Energy of Solvent Polarization from Explicit and Implicit Solvation
Roe, D., Okur, A., Wickstrom, L., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2007, 111 (7), 1846-1857
Targeting structural flexibility in HIV-1 protease inhibitor binding
Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Drug Discovery Today, 2007, 12 (3-4), 132-138
Improving Convergence of Replica Exchange Simulations through Coupling to a High Temperature
Okur, A., Roe, D., Cui, G., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2007, 3 (2), 557-568
Generalized Born model with a simple, robust molecular volume correction
Mongan, J., Simmerling, C., McCammon, J. A., Case, D.and Onufriev, A.
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2007, 3 (1), 156-169
HIV-1 protease flaps spontaneously open and reclose in molecular dynamics simulations
Hornak, V., Okur, A., Rizzo, R. and Simmerling, C.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,2006, 103 (4), 915-920
HIV-1 Protease Flaps Spontaneously Close to the Correct Structure in Simulations Following
Manual Placement of an Inhibitor into the Open State
Hornak, V.; Okur, A., Rizzo, R. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2006, 128 (9), 2812-2813
Simulating HIV-1 Protease at its Most Vulnerable Instant
Simmerling, C. and Gomperts, R.
Scientific Computing, 2006, 7, 32-34
Enhanced Sampling Methods for Simulation of Nucleic Acids
Kelso, C. and Simmerling, C.
Computational Studies of DNA and RNA, Springer Publishers, 147-186, 2006
The open structure of a multi drug resistant HIV-1 protease is stabilized by crystal
Layten, M., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Amercian Chemical Society , 2006, 128 (41), 13360-13361
Structure of Acyl Carrier Protein Bound to FabI, the FASII Enoyl Reductase from Escherichia
Rafi, S., Novichenok, P., Kolappan, S., Zhang, X., Strattor, C., Rawat, R., Kisker, C., Simmerling, C. and Tonge, P.
Journal of Biological Chemistry , 2006 , 281 (51), 39285-39293
The Unfolded State of the Villin Headpiece Helical Subdomain: Computational Studies
of the Role of Locally Stabilized Structure
Wickstrom, L., Okur, A., Song, K., Hornak, V., Raleigh, D. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Molecular Biology , 2006, 360 (5), 1094-1107
Computational analysis of the binding mode of 8-oxo-guanine to formamidopyrimidine-DNA
Song, K., Hornak, V., de los Santos, C., Grollman, A. and Simmerling, C.
Biochemistry , 2006 , 45 (36), 10886-10894
Insight through MM-PBSA Calculations into the Binding Affinity of Triclosan and Three
Analogs for FabI, the E. Coli Enoyl Reductase
Rafi, S., Cui, G., Song, K., Cheng, X., Tonge, P. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2006 , 49 (15), 4574-4580
Comparison of multiple Amber force fields and development of improved protein backbone
Hornak, V., Abel, R., Okur, A., Strockbine, B., Roitberg, A. and Simmerling, C.
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics , 2006 , 3 (3), 712-725
Investigation of salt bridge stability in a Generalized Born solvent model
Geney, R., Layten, M., Gomperts, R., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2006 , 2 (1), 115-127
Improved Efficiency of Replica Exchange Simulations through Use of a Hybrid Explicit/Implicit
Okur, A., Wickstrom, L., Layten, M., Geney, R., Song, K., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2006 , 2 (2), 420-433
Enhanced Sampling Methods for Simulation of Nucleic Acids
Kelso, C. and Simmerling, C.
in Computational Studies of DNA and RNA, J. Sponer and F. Lankas (Editors), Springer Publishers, 2006 , 147-168
Hybrid Explicit/Implicit Solvation Methods
Okur, A. and Simmerling, C.
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry , 2006 , 2 , 97-109
Structural Requirements of the Extracellular To Transmembrane Domain Junction for
Erythropoietin Receptor Function
Kubatzky, K., Liu, W., Goldgraben, K., Simmerling, C., Steven O. Smith, S., and Constantinescu, S.
Journal of Biological Chemistry , 2005 , 280 (15), 14844-14854
Use of the tubulin-bound paclitaxel conformation for structure-based rational drug
Geney, R., Sun, L., Pera, P., Bernacki, R., Xia, R., Horwitz, S., Simmerling, C., and Ojima, I.
Chemistry & Biology , 2005 , 12 (3), 339-348
Folding Cooperativity in a Three-stranded beta-sheet Model
Roe, D., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Molecular Biology, 2005, 352 (2), 370-381
Dynamic Behavior of DNA Base Pairs Containing 8-oxoguanine
Cheng, X., Kelso, C., Hornak, V., de los Santos, C., Grollman, A. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of American Chemical Society, 2005 , 127 (40), 13906-13918
The Amber biomolecular simulation program
Case, D. A.; Cheatham, T. E.; Darden, T.; Gohlke, H.; Luo, R.; Merz, K. M.; Onufriev, A.; Simmerling, C.; Wang, B.; Woods, R. J.
Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2005 , 26 , 1668-
Modified Replica Exchange Simulation Methods for Local Structure Refinement
Cheng, X., Cui, G., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2005, 109 (16), 8220-8230
Improved Conformational Sampling through an Efficient Combination of Mean-Field Simulation
Cheng, X., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Physical Chemistry, 2004 , 108 (1), 426-437
Development of Softcore Potential Functions for Overcoming Steric Barriers in MD
Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelnig , 2004 , 22 (5), 405-413
Inhibition of the Bacterial Enoyl Reductase FabI by Triclosan: A Structure-Reactivity
Analysis of FabI Inhibition by Triclosan Analogs
Sivaraman, S., Sullivan, T., Johnson. F., Novichenok, P., Cui, G., Simmerling, C., Johnson, F. and Tonge, P.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 2004 , 47 (3), 509-518
Foreword: Conformational Sampling Special Issue
Roitberg, A. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modeling, 2004, 22 (5), 317
Using PC Clusters to Evaluate the Transferability of Molecular Mechanics Force Fields
Okur, A., Strockbine, B., Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Journal of Computational Chemistry , 2003 , 24 (1), 21-31
Generation of Accurate Protein Loop Conformations through Low-barrier Molecular Dynamics
Hornak, V. and Simmerling, C.
Proteins: Structure, Function, Genetics, 2003 , 51 (4), 577-590
All-Atom Structure Prediction and Folding Simulations of a Stable Protein
Simmerling, C., Strockbine, B and Roitberg, A.
Journal of American Chemical Society, 2002 , 124 (38), 11258-11259
Conformational Heterogeneity Observed in Simulations of a Pyrene-Substitued DNA
Cui, G and Simmerling, C.
Journal of American Chemical Society, 2002, 124 (41), 12154-12164
The Disordered Mobile Loop of GroES Folds into a Defined beta Hairpin upon Binding
Shewmaker, F., Maskos, K., Simmerling, C. and Landry, S. J.
Journal of Biological Chemistry , 2001 , 276 (33), 31257-31264
Combining MONSSTER and LES/PME to Predict Protein Structure from Amino Acid Sequence:
Application to the Small Protein CMTI-I
Simmerling, C., Lee, M.R, Ortiz, AR., Kolinski, A., Skolnick, J., Kollman, P.A.
Journal of American Chemical Society , 2000 , 122 (35), 8392-8402
Combined Locally Enhanced Sampling and Particle Mesh Ewald as a Strategy to Locate
the Experimental Structure of a Non-helical Nucleic Acid
Simmerling, C., Miller, J. L., and Kollman, P.
Journal of American Chemical Society , 1998 , 120 (29), 7149-7155
The Use of Locally Enhanced Sampling in Free Energy Calculations: Testing and Application
to the alpha -> beta Anomerization of Glucose
Simmerling, C., Fox, T. and Kollman, P.
Journal of American Chemical Society , 1998 , 120 (23), 5771-5782
Case, D.A., Pearlman, D.A., Caldwell, J.A., Cheatham, T.E., Ross, W.S., Simmerling, C.L., Darden, T.A., Merz, K.M., Stanton, R.V., Cheng, A.L., Vincent, J.J., Crowley, M., Ferguson, D.M., Radmer, R.J., Seibel, G.L., Singh, U.C., Weiner, P.K. and Kollman, P.A.,
University of California, San Francisco, 1997
Dynamics of Peptide Folding
Elber, R., Mohanty, D. and Simmerling, C.
in Classical and Quantum Dynamics in Condensed Phase Simulations, B. Berne et. al. (eds.) World Scientific, Singapore , 1998
MOIL- A Program for Simulation of Macromolecules
Elber, R., Roitberg, A., Simmerling, C., Goldstein, R., Verkhivker, G., Li, H. and Ulitsky, A.
Comp. Phys. Comm., 1995 , 91 (1-3), 159-189
MOIL-View: A Program for Visualization of Structure and Dynamics of Biomolecules and
STO: a Program for Computing Stochastic Paths
Simmerling, C., Elber, R. and Zhang, J.,
in Modeling of Biomolecular Structures and Mechanisms, A. Pullman et al. (eds.) Kluwer Acad. Publishers, Netherlands , 1995
Computer Determination of Peptide Conformations in Water: Different Roads to Structure
Simmerling, C. and Elber, R.
Proceedings of the National Academics of Sciences USA , 1995 , 92 (8), 3190-3193
Hydrophobic “Collapse” in a Cyclic Hexapeptide: Computer Simulations of CHDLFC and
CAAAAC in Water
Simmerling, C. and Elber, R.
Journal of American Chemical Society , 1994 , 16 (6), 2534-2547
MOIL- A Molecular Dynamics Program with Emphasis on Conformational Searches and Reaction
Path Calculations in Large Biological Molecules
Elber, R., Roitberg, A., Simmerling, C., Goldstein, R., Verkhivker, G. and Li, H.
in Statistical Mechanics, Protein Structure and Protein-Substrate Interactions, S Doniach (ed.), Plenum Press, NY , 1994