Additional Active Learning Resources
Hyun, J., Ediger, R., & Lee, D. (2017). Students’ satisfaction on their learning process
in active learning and traditional classrooms.
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 29(1), 108-118. Retrieved from
This study and its resulting data
examines the necessity of specifically designed space for Active Learning Pedagogy.
While an Active Learning Classroom facilitates interactive productivity, instructors
may effectively use active learning pedagogy within traditional classrooms. Based
on specific examples and a performed study, the greatest advantage of active learning
is the positive influence on both student and instructor attitude and engagement.
“Pedagogy is key.”
Highlights: “Faculty members in the active learning community (ALC) shared that they tended to
spend more time before class in class preparation once they were committed to active
Wu, S.P.W., & Rau, M.A. (2017). How technology and collaboration promote formative
feedback: A role for CSCL research in active learning interventions.
Making a Difference: Prioritizing Equity and Access in CSCL. 12th International Conference
on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL 2017), 1
, 279-286. Retrieved from
This paper details an observational study
which looks at the ability to utilize active learning interventions to facilitate
formative feedback. Active learning, largely through online problem sets, provides
more opportunity for levels of production, reflection, and feedback as well as the
repetition of those aspects of learning. Active learning setups also allows instructors
to give more feedback of substantial quality to each student.
Highlights: “One possible explanation of how technology supported collaboration in active learning
interventions is that correctness feedback from the online problems helps students
trust corrective feedback from peers.”
Auerbach, A.J., Higgins, M., Brickman, P., & Andrews, T.C. (2018). Teacher knowledge
for active-learning instruction: Expert-novice comparison reveals differences.
Life Sciences Education,
17(1). Retrieved from
This study explores the implementation and efficacy of active learning
through the lens of instructor experience. The extent of an instructor’s knowledge
of teaching and learning has a direct impact on how effectively they implement active
learning strategies.Through accumulated experience, veteran teachers ‘notice differently
than novice teachers, drawing on knowledge that newer teachers lack to critically
analyze teaching and learning in a classroom…[especially] the relationship between
teaching strategies and student thinking.’ To fully realize the benefits of active
learning, pedagogy must be an integral part of preparation and facilitation.
Highlights: “While a lecturer can prepare an entire lesson before a class meeting and enact
it without much deviation, an active-learning instructor engages students in examining
and articulating their own thinking during a lesson and must be able to recognize,
make sense of, and respond to student thinking in real time.”
Brame, C.J. (n.d.). Active learning.
Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching. Retrieved from
This article offers multiple definitions, strategies, activities, and resources for
. The authors ties active learning basics to constructivist learning and authorities
such as Piaget and Vygotsky. The research supports that active learning fosters more
success than traditional lecture-based teaching and that active learning is an effective
tool for inclusivity (socioeconomic status, gender) in classrooms. Article provides
a good foundational understanding of active learning theory and practice.
Carr, R., Palmer, S., & Hagel, P. (2015). Active learning: the importance of developing
a comprehensive measure.
Active Learning in Higher Education, 16(3), 173-186. Retrieved from
Carr, Palmer, and Hagel perform
“an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent
to which higher education students employ active learning strategies.” They lay out
a foundational understanding of active learning before delving into modes of active
learning and their measurability on scales such as the Australasian Survey of Student
Engagement (AUSSE) and the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). The data
supports the importance of reflective and guided
experiences in learning and stresses the importance of active learning strategies for modern
Baepler, P., & Walker, J.D. (2014). Active learning classrooms and educational alliances:
Changing relationships to improve learning.
New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 137. Retrieved from
This paper addresses why active learning classrooms work
for our current academic society, exploring social ideology and practice. Active
learning classrooms are shown to foster and facilitate a learning community that is
dynamic and flexible, engaged and interactive. Largely, the deconstruction of traditional
hierarchy and the evolution of learning go hand in hand. The authors explore this
through an overarching concept of
educational alliance and five main aspects of learning and the learning environment: mutual respect,
shared responsibility for learning, effective communication and feedback, cooperation,
and trust and security. The fluidity and interactivity of space and environment is
shown to actively influence both student and instructor mindset and engagement.
Chickering, A.W., & Gamson, Z.F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate
American Association for Higher Education. Retrieved from
One of the original and most often cited articles
that positions active learning at the heart and soul of a learning environment. These
seven principles are 1. Encourages contacts between students and faculty 2. Develops
reciprocity and cooperation among students 3. Uses active learning techniques 4. Gives
prompt feedback 5. Emphasizes time on task 6. Communicates high expectations 7. Respects
diverse talents and way of learning. This article shows the common foundation of good
teaching no matter the location, the space, or the ideology.
Beichner, R.J. (2014). History and evolution of active learning spaces.
New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 137. Retrieved from
Freeman, S., Eddy, S., McDonough, M., Smith, M.K., Okoroafor, H., Wenderoth M.P. (2014)
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111(23):8410-8415.
Freeman et al. use meta-analysis to test
the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance. They focus
on analyzing examination scores or failure rates in STEM courses in traditional lecturing
or active learning. According to their findings, average exam scores increased by
6% under active learning classes.
Haak, D.C., HilleRisLambers, J., Pitre, E., Freeman S. (2011). Increased structure
learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology.
Science. 332(6034): 1213-1216.
In this article, the authors demonstrate
how highly structured course design had a positive impact on performance of all students,
regardless of diverse backgrounds, in a intro biology class. The Carnegie Hall hypotheis
outlines that "intensive practice, via active-learning exercises, has a disproportionate
benefit for capable but poorly prepared students."
Tanner, K.D. (2013). Structure matters: twenty-one teaching strategies to promote
engagement and cultivate classroom equity.
CBE Life Sciences Educ
ation. 12(3): 322–331.
Equitable teaching strategies
are investigated for their effectiveness in supporting biology instructors in fostering
equity in the classroom.