ArcView itself is considered to be a computer file. The accompanying materials include textual items for instruction in the use of ArcView, and also some items, at least in ArcView for Schools and Libraries, that may not be specifically geared toward ArcView. School librarians may find this material more useful as a kit and would tend to catalog and keep the materials together. If the item were to be cataloged as a unit, the individual parts could be specified in the holdings record. But the textual materials, especially the ones not specifically intended for use with ArcView, could be separated out. So, in a research library, they would tend to be cataloged separately. The Library of Congress might deal with such an item by breaking out the maps to be cataloged separately. A copy of the entire kit could be kept as an example. For LC's collection the accompanying material would not be retained.
The discussion moved on to look at notes in records for cartographic materials. How detailed should they be? Betsy Mangan offered that notes are for catalogers; researchers rarely use them. The contents note is keyword searchable in some systems, and thus useful even if no one reads them. Notes may be helpful to reference librarians, who may pass the information on to patrons.
Betsy noted that most map records from thirty years ago would take up one screen. Today's records can run to four or five screens. She asked, Do we need this? Jo Davidson (University of Georgia) pointed out that there were no guidelines on what to include in a map record thirty years ago. Susan Moore (University of Northern Iowa) noted that it is easy to strip down a record, but not very easy if you decide you want to add data long after the record has been created.
The importance of some specific elements was discussed. Scale and measurement are important today if one is intending to scan the map. The flatbed scanner at LC, for example, is 24 x 36 inches, so the dimensions of a map can tell you how many scans will be required.
Many notes are important for the identification of an item. Thirty years ago LC was one of the few institutions cataloging maps, and the only one sharing map cataloging records. Quoting numbers on a map is often very important for identification.
It was noted that the dimensions of the sheet should only be recorded if at least one dimension is twice as large as the same dimension of the map. The complexities of map measurement were brought home to Kay Johnson when she tried to train students to measure maps, and wound up giving up on the idea. Kay wondered if other libraries were doing this.
Kay also asked how to describe a "pop-up" map. Betsy didn't recall the term they had used at LC. The term "accordion map" came up, but that describes something different. Some folding and slitting techniques are important enough to be regarded as a feature of the map. Such details need to be described carefully to make sure another cataloger can tell if they have the same item. One can look at other records of maps by the same company, or even call the company if in doubt. One must balance the needs of the institution against the needs of the broader cartographic community. Researchers many years from now may want to know this information. For example, it may be useful for someone planning an exhibition. Could this be a candidate for a form/genre heading?
Speaking of genres, one participant came up with a number of genres of globes that did not make it onto the preliminary form/genre list. "Atlases" as a genre is not divided. Should there be subgenres under atlases? "National atlases" was one suggestion, but the committee who looked at this could not define it. Catalogers can't apply what they can't recognize. The genre list was sent mostly to geographers and researchers in the history of cartography. The committee that has been working on this wanted to know the value of these terms for researchers.
Terms like "Tourist maps," "Zoning maps," "Road maps," etc. combine subject and form. These will need to be changed. Why are these terms in LCSH at all? The Geography and Map Division (G&M) at LC preferred a separate publication, but LC decided that all form/genre headings must be a part of LCSH. G&M did insist upon stating that these are form headings for maps and atlases in order to preserve a controlled list.
What form does one use for electronic atlases? Many records use the subdivisions "Software" or "Databases." This didn't seem quite right to some participants. LC uses simply "Atlases" (with a note describing the item).
LC's Guidelines for Distinguishing Cartographic Materials on Computer File Carriers from other Materials on Computer File Carriers is still a working document and comments are being welcomed. Not everyone is agreed on how to identify a specific item. Betsy Mangan highlighted some of the problems. A product that is strictly GIS software gets cataloged as a computer file (type "m"). Electronic atlases are multimedia, so could be regarded as a computer file. But there is nothing in these items that is not in a paper atlas (e.g., text, statistics, gazetteer). It became necessary to code these in type "e" because for the computer files catalogers didn't record the cartographic information. No tracings were given for the publisher, an access point that has been brought up before in the discussion group as being a very important one to map catalogers. They were also reluctant to add "Maps" to the subject headings.
Finally it was noted (once again) that G&M has some items in its collection that are not cataloged as cartographic material. These items are assigned to G&M because they will be used there. On this note, the meeting was adjourned. It should be noted for anyone interested that the above mentioned guidelines are available on the Library of Congress web site at http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/cfmap.html.
I would also like to encourage anyone reading this to feel free to send their comments on any aspect of map cataloging or information that would be of interest to map catalogers to me. As cataloging editor for base line, I will disseminate anything of general interest that I receive via this column. For anyone trying to reach me, I should also mention that I have moved. I am now at Boise State University, where I can be reached via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or by phone at (208) 426-1082 or by traditional mail at:
Boise State University
1910 University Drive
Boise, ID 83725
Let me hear from you.
Figure 1. Some elements of the OCLC record for ArcView GIS (Cartographic Material)
Type: e 245 00 ArcView GIS ‡h [kit] 250 Version 3.0 for Windows 520 Geographic information system with various components designed for interactive geographic exploration in schools, libraries, and museums. 505 0 ArcView: GIS for everyone, version 3.0 for windows, c1992-1996 (1 CD-ROM) – ESRI data & maps, vol. 1, c1996 (1 CD-ROM) – ArcView GIS : the Geographic information system for everyone : using ArcView GIS (vi, 350 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.) – Avenue : customization and application development for ArcView : using avenue (viii, 260 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.) – ArcView GIS installation guide (iv, 26 p. ; 23 cm.) – What’s new in ArcView GIS version 3.0 (vi, 36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.) – 3 product documentation pamphlets. 650 0 ArcView (Computer program) 650 0 Geographic information systems ‡x Software. 650 0 Digital mapping ‡x Software. 650 0 Maps, Statistical ‡x Software. 710 2 Environmental Systems Research Institute (Redlands, Calif.) 740 02 [9 entries]
Figure 2. Some elements of the OCLC record for ArcView for Schools and Libraries (Kit)
Type: o 245 00 ArcView for schools and libraries ‡h [kit] 246 30 ArcView 250 [Macintosh version] 520 Geographic information system with various components designed for interactive geographic exploration in schools, libraries, and museums. 505 0 ArcView GIS, version 2.1a, c1992-1996 (12 floppy disks, 1 CD- ROM disc)—ArcView installation guide—Quick start guide, c1995 —Product information folder—Introducing ArcView, c1994—Introducing Avenue: Avenue, customization and application development for ArcView, c1994—GIS in K-12 education, c1995—GIS approach to digital spatial libraries, c1995—Explore your world: GIS in K-12 education, c1995 (VHS videocassette, 17 min.)—GIS in Libraries: public access to GIS, c1994 (VHS videocassette, 17 min.)—Explore your world with a geographic information system, c1995 with poster—Getting 505 0 to know desktop GIS, featuring ArcView c1995 with CD-ROM disc—ESRI map book, vol. 11, Geography connects our world, 1995— Introduction to ArcView for schools & libraries: computer screen videos, c1995, 1 floppy disk for Windows with notes—Sample electronic atlas and screen show: geographic images for screen shows and presentations, c1995, 1 floppy disk with notes—ArcUSA 1.2M: coterminous U.S.: a comprehensive GIS database for use with Arc/Info and ArcView, c1992, 2 CD-ROM discs with guides—ArcWorld 1.3M: continental coverage: a comprehensive GIS database for use with Arc/Info and 505 0 ArcView, c1992, 2 CD-ROM discs with guides—ArcScene USA tour, c1992, 1 CD-ROM disc with guide—Digital chart of the world, for use with ESRI desktop software, ArcData, 4 CD-ROM discs (c1994) with printed materials—ArcView version 1.0 for Windows, c1990-95, 1 CD ROM disc—Visit ESRI’s new home on the Internet flyer—ArcData catalog—Contents list. 650 0 ArcView (Computer program) 650 0 Geographic information systems ‡x Software. 650 0 Digital mapping ‡x Software. 650 0 Maps, Statistical ‡x Software. 710 2 Environmental Systems Research Institute (Redlands, Calif.) 740 02 [23 entries]