January 30, 2002

FLC Reading: Introduction
Ambivalent process of "modernization"
Pillars: market capitalism, Western ideologies, and new technologies
1. Changing concepts and experience of space and time Causes: technology, exploration, discoveries, new concepts Effects: mapping, horizons, density
2. Increasing cultural interactions Causes: exchange, transnational interpenetration, transplantation, dissemination Effects: multicultural lifestyles and experiences
3. Commonality of problems facing humanity
4. Increasing interconnections and interdependencies TNCs, IGOs, INGOs, GSMs, Diasporas/stateless, Other
5. Synchronization and Inseparability of all dimensions economic, political, cultural
1. broaden/relativize identities
2. "Western" modernity
3. reflexivity and disillusion
4. Glocalization via selection & adaption
5. resistance

February 6, 2002

Global Challenges of Techno-Science
1. Techno-Science and Globalization
- Outer nature/matter, human nature, and society
- Change of use and perception of space and time
- R & D: corporations/universities/government (military, space)
2. Definition of Technology and Science
- "Technology" is the systematic application of ideas in order to produce a desired outcome by manipulating the material world
- "Technological Practice" is the complex set of social and cultural patterns in which a society's technologies are embedded from organized scientific activity to knowledge of solving practical tasks
- "Science" is the systematic attempt to explain any realm of human experience, including nature, society, and human mental processes, by methods that can be replicated and that lead to shared knowledge
3. Origins of the Modern Mechanistic Techno-Science
-Renaissance/Protestant Reform/Scient.Revolution/Enlightenment
4. Mechanistic Misconceptions of "Nature"
- Linearity/Separability/Reversibility/Uniformity
5. Postmodern Techno-Scientific Worldviews in Present Era
- New Physics/Chaos theory/Emerging Information Model
- Postmodernism
- Ecological postmodernism/postmodern organicism (Spretnak)
6. Assessing the Impact of Techno-Science
-Technological optimism/pessimism/"imperative" & "determinism"
- Contextual interaction of Technology, Society & Science
7. Forecast of Emerging Technologies (Halal et al.)
-TNC's, virtual/clustered communities, consensus/interntl restruct.

February 13, 2002

Philosophy of Technology in Global Perspective
Social impact of technological change in our age
1. Janus-faced technology, control of nature, and human history
2. Central Question: NOT "What can we do?" BUT "What should we do?"
3. Three inadequate views about technology: optimism, pessimism, adaptism
4. Taking advantage: internal/external costs, support, interests, institutions
5. Technology and value change
6. Technology and religious change: ultimate values, secularism, relig. reactions, solutions
7. Technology, society, and the public interest: expert culture, rationality, public goods
8. Technology development, private firms and public welfare
9. Scientific expertocracy and democratic decision-making
10. Technol. alienation, gvt. intervention, individual rights & public responsibilities
Technology: the opiate of the intellectuals
1. Techno-Science, the Mesthene Report, and technology as religion ("laissez innover")
2. Example of technology abuse: Vietnam war, computer guided killing and the irrational foot soldier
3. The new technocratic elite/intellectual, technological inequality, and the pacified society

February 20, 2002

Global Techno-Science
1. Who is Bruno Latour?
www.ensmp.fr/ PagePerso/CSI/Bruno_Latour.html
2. Reminder: Definition of Techno-Science Peterson (1999)
3. Origin and Purpose to Accumulate Knowledge?
4. Cycles of Knowledge Accumulation
5. Characteristics of Accumulated Science
a) Mobility, b) Stability, 3) Combinability
Collections in "centres", Refinements, "Paper world"
6. The Skeleton of Constructed Space and Time
7. Source of Hegemony: Tying things together in "core" center
"Data drowning," "n-th" degree, calculus & equations
Equations (a) tell us what is associated with what, (b) define the nature of the relations, (c) often express a measure of resistance of each association to disruption.
8. Abstraction Results: Formalism and Math Calculation
Process of abstraction, Theory & Reality, Formalism and Math=Vertical & transversal culmination of univ. knowlg.
Abstract sciences thematize essential basics of knowledge
Irrelevance of cognitive abilities of human "translators".
9. Center Maintenance
The return of knowledge from the centres to the periphery
Trial runs, Simulations, and Failures of final practice
"Metrologie"=Elementary parameters & maintenance
Other (in)constants: weight, length, biological standards…
Universality of the paper form & bureaucracy
No clear difference b/w social & natural sciences/hard and soft sciences=result of organic process of knowledge accumulation for power & influence. Demystify/deconstruct Techno-Science

February 27, 2002

Techno-Science and Global Arms Control
1. Global Techno-Science, Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense (ABMD), and Arms Control: Who controls whom?
2. Global threats, Weapons of Mass Destruction & Disarmament
3. Four WMD Strategies: Arms control, defense, armament, attack
4. Cons re: Armament/Deterrence: peace through threat, predictability, retaliation capability, "dead end" strategy, what next after "Day After"?
5. Strategy 1--Arms Control and Non-Proliferation: CTBT, START, AABM, NPT, unilateral actions, "rogue nations" and world pressure
6. Con re: Strategy 1: a Darwinist world, technological determinism, national interest/Realpolitik, historical pessimism
7. Strategy 2--ABMD: passive and active defenses, missile flight phases interference, operations (detection, interception, control)
8. Con re: Strategy 2: no protection against ICBM's/short range cruise missiles (merchant ships)/WMD use in harbors or countermeasures 9. History of Deterrence and ABMD: Cold War massive attack deterrence (MAD), Post-Cold War limited attack but asymmetric warfare
10. Policies Pursued by U.S. Government: ABM, 1997 Demarcation Agreements for Theater Missile Defense=not ratified, U.S. Submarine Warhead Protection Program=quality downsizing, CTBT & Biological & Toxin Weapons Convention=not ratified, withdrawal from ABM Treaty w/o amendments as promised (12. 13. 2001), indication of retreat from NPT commitment not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states (2.11.2002)
11. History of U.S. ABMD R&D Efforts 1984-2002: phases ranging from Techno-Scientific exploration to deployment. Intervening factors: global political changes, technological breakthroughs, and budgetary limitations, costs 1984-2000: $60 billion. 2002-07 estim. $100 billion.

March 6, 2002

Mediating Military and other Disputes of Global Importance
1. Basics of UN Mediation (Peacemaking and Peacekeeping)
Definition: use of multilateral forces for conflict settlement, such as cease-fire lines/cease-fires, force separation, law & order, humanitarian aid.
Three Stages: peacekeeping (prevention), peace enforcement (sustaining prevention), peace building (“fixing” after conflict).
Basic Tenets: UN Charter mediation & sanctions (Article 2, Sections 3,4, and 5), role of the Security Council-General Assembly, Revision of rules in 1973.
2. The UN and the Israel/Palestine Conflict
Core issues of the Conflict: "Promised Land" of Zionism, Wars between Israel and its Arab neighbors, Israel's right of existence, Israeli occupation and Jewish settlements in the West Bank/Gaza/East Jerusalem, International and Geneva Conventions, Exchange of occupied land vs. peace and recognition, Role of fundamentalism, extremism & terrorism on both sides.
20 UN resolutions since 1946 (#181, #242, #383 etc).
Importance of U.S. veto in Security Council re: implementation of resolutions.
UN Peacekeeping missions and their successes/failures:
- 1948 UNTSO cease-fire & negotiations
- 1956-73 UN Emergency Force (UNEF 1, see reading).
- 1973-1978 UN Emergency Force Two (UNEF 2)
- since 1974 UN Disengagement Force (UNDOF 1) on Golan Heights
- since 1978 UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL).
3. History of Israel/Palestine
3,000 years history, homeland claims by Jews and Palestinians, raise of Zionism in 19th century, British Balfour Declaration 1917, Jewish immigration in the interwar and post WWII period, Break-up of British Mandate in November 1947, UN resolution, Founding of state of Israel 14 May 1948, followed by 1st Arab-Israeli war, Palestinian dispossession & exodus, Suez Canal crisis 1956, Founding of PLO in 1964, Six Days War 1967, Yom-Kippur War 1973, Camp David 1979, civil war in Lebanon and Israel's invasion 1982-2000, 1st Intifada 1987, Gulf War 1991 and Scud Missile threat of Israel, "Peace vs. Land" Oslo Peace Accord 1993, Peace Nobel Prize to Rabin & Arafat, Rabin's Murder 1995, Failure to implement Oslo Agreement, 2nd Intifada 2000, 9/11/2001 and aftermath, Sharon vs. Arafat.

March 20, 2002

1. A Special Moment in Human History
- At issue are limits of planet's carrying capacity & possible solutions to reduce fossil-fuel use via conservation, efficiency, new technology etc.
2. Ecological Concepts
- Ecology, ecosystem, nested hierarchies, stability levels & threshold "jumps"
3. Global Environmental Balance, Dangers & Causes of Degradation
- Symbiotic relationships and ecological balance in nature versus human development regimes & ancient/modern ecological disasters.
- Depletion & degradation of global non/circulating planetary media through inappropriate/excessive free for taking use=undermining planetary hydrosphere, ecological networks, socio/biosphere.
- Current dangers and effects: Overpopulation, overharvesting, fossil fuel use, unsustainable growth/consumption/waste leading to global warming, atmospheric/water/land pollution, habitat destruction, species extinction, reduction of biodiversity. Special effects on future generations, native peoples & poor individuals/countries.
- Causes: human domination over nature, mechanistic philosophy, instrumental rationality, capitalist free-taking.
4. U.S. Environmental, Development & Resource Problems
- Water/air pollution & scarcity, acid rain, waste disposal, chemical/nuclear hazards, land degradation, soil erosion, wetland/forest destruction
5. Toward Sustainable Solutions: Controversies, Actors & Factors
- Controversy about exact causes, effects, and remedies to protect biosphere & sociosphere resulting in political contestation of 1970 Clean Air/Water/Endangered Species Acts, role of EPA, Kyoto Protocol, Arctic Wildlife etc.
- Actors and factors: NGO's, UN, EPA, environmentalists ("deep" vs. "social" ecology movements), business, farmers, consumers & other interest groups, public ignorance, lack of commitment, incompetence, corruption.
- Solutions: Zero plus sum game, ethical stewardship, sustainable development.

April 03, 2002

World Climate & Atmosphere: Acid Rain
1. Nature & Development of Acid Precipitation ("Acid Rain")
Natural vs. anthropogenically sources. Types of acidic precipitation (wet & dry). pH scales of acidicity. Chemical processes & reactions. Formation, distribution & impact of acid rain. Unintended effects of the " tall stacks policy" of the 1960's & 1970's,
2. The Geography of Acid Rain
SO2 & NOX emissions in different world regions. Weather & wind patterns. Urbanization, third world development & global acid rain. Arctic haze. Denial vs. global monitoring.
3. Acid Rain and Geology
Role of bedrock characteristics. Granit/quartz vs. limestone/chalk.
4. Acid Rain and the Aquatic Environment
History since industrialization. Local & national impacts on lakes. Increase of other toxic metal concentrations (Alum) & gradual destruction of biological communities in ecosystem (fish, invertebrates, insects, microscopic organisms, birds). Role of seasonal water deposits.
5. Acid Rain and the Terrestrial Environment
Factors contributing to soil & tree destruction, such as nutrient depletion & mobilization of toxic metals. Tree dieback & " Waldsterben" (Examples: maples, coniferous trees). Economic & social long term effects.
6. Acid Rain and the Built Environment
Effect on different materials (chalk, limstone, marble, steel), Threat to world's cultural heritage. Time lag effects.
7. Acid Rain and Human Health
London smog 1952. Chronic respiratory problems. Human heavy metals intake via food chain/water/pipes/tanks/wells
8. Solutions to emission control
Six reduction methods of SO2 & NOX before/during/after combustion. Artificial liming of water/lakes. Auto exhaust-catalytic filters. Cost-effectiveness issues.
9. Economics and the Politics of Acid Rain
International emission control accords. Conflicts b/w Canada-U.S., Britain-Scandinavia. Role of political lobbies/procrastination/misinformation/public ignorance.

April 10, 2002

Pollution and Health as Global Phenomena
1. The Atmosphere: Evolution and Composition
Evolution of atmosphere over the several hundred million years. Earth-atmosphere is a "closed" system--no disappearance of pollutants or substances. Reactivity of O2 (21%) & CO2 (0.03%) compared to N2 (78%) & Ar (0.9%).
2. Regions of the Atmosphere
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere. 99% of A. within 18 miles of surface.
3. Radiation Balance
Reflection & absorption of UV rays (9% energy),Vis.light (41%),Infrared (50%).
4. Human Impact on the Earth-Atmosphere System
Introduction of pollutant gases/particles & changes in concentration.
5. Depletion of the Ozone Layer through CFC's
Ozone formation & depletion. Arctic ozone "hole". Effects on humans, plants, animals. Policy Response: 1987 Montreal Protocol. But CFC smuggling etc.
6. Rising Levels of Atmospheric CO2-Global Warming/Greenhouse Effect
Rise in fossil fuel combustion, destruction of forest cover, poisoning of oceanic photoplankton. Doubling of CO2 by 2100 & 2o C. increase. Only small minority of research rejects conclusions. Largest polluters: U.S. and China.
7. Other Greenhouse Gases with cumulative effects equivalent to CO2
Methane, Nitrous Oxide, CFC's, Sulfur hexafluoride, PCF's, HFC's
8. Impacts of Global Warming
Drastic changes of rainfall/temperature. Effects: diminishing crop yields, loss of biodiversity, rising sea levels, human illness, climatic "Jumps" at thresholds.
9. Greenhouse Policy Debate
Rio Summit. UN Framework Convention on Climate Control. 1997 Kyoto Protocol. U.S. withdrawal b/c of domestic concerns/ voter apathy/ ignorance/ misinform (U.S. contributes 23% of global pollution with 4% of world pop.)
10. Policy Options
60% slashing or capping emissions near present levels. Improving energy efficiency. Replacing fossil fuels with "soft energy path" technologies. Reversing forest loss. Reducing CFC emissions & other greenhouse gases. Taxing the use of fossil fuels. Increase research for climate adaptation.

April 24, 2002

The United Nations: Charter, Organization, Challenges
1. UN Charter
History: Originated from WWII alliance, successor of inter-war "League of Nations."
Basics: preservation of global peace, human rights, fundamental freedoms.
2. Organizational Structure
- General Assembly (185 nations): budget/elects administration/reports/discussion/world opinion
- Security Council (15 members): 9 non-permanent & 5 permanent members (P5), decision body with P5 veto power
- ECOSOC & other commissions/committees: special discussion/report/recommendations
- Trusteeship Council
- International Court of Justice
- UN Secretariat/General Secretary: executive/administrative function
- Specialized agencies/autonomous organizations/ad hoc bodies: ILO, FAO, UNESCO, WHO, World Bank group, IMF, IMO, WTO, etc.
- 1,500 NGO's: consultative status/civil society link
3. Post Cold War Challenges
- UN reform of staffing & budget: underfunding, search for new resources
- Security Council reform: inclusion of new members & democratization blocked by P5
- New global tasks: expansion of peace keeping missions/humanitarian intervention, weapons proliferation and disarmament (small arms, land mines, means of mass destruction), global governance/global civil society, coalition building/consultation/cooperation, global leadership
- New conflicts: self-determination and ethnic conflict (Bosnia, Kosovo, East Timor, Palestine…), North-South divide (G-77), environment (Kyoto Protocol), sustainable development, refugees, population control, food supply, women's rights
- New developments in world politics: global integration & interdependence, economic liberalization, democratization & fragmentation, multilateralism, raise of NGO's/IGO's/TNC's, U.S. hegemonic superpower status.

May 01, 2002

What is “Globalization”?
- Globalization is a historical process of the last few hundred years involving:
- the widening, deepening, and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness
- a social and political process involving various actors and institutions that shape ‘worldviews’, opinions, identities, cultures
- a geographical process with nodes, empty spaces as well as full ones
- changing flows of goods /services /capital /people /diseases/ ideas /customs /cultures, i.e. particular trades in cars, oil, weapons, opium, Coca Cola, world music, which make up various world systems of specific links/interactions/networks.
Technological globalization: time-space convergence
- Transportation:
- shipping, railroad, air, …
- Communication/ Information :
- telegraph, telephone, fax, email, WWW, video-conferencing …
- Destructive Technologies for War and Defense
- weapons of mass destruction, ABM, landmines, terrorist “technologies”…
Environmental globalization in the Bio- & Sociosphere
- Global climate change (air, water, soil):
- Greenhouse gases /global warming (Kyoto Protocols), Acid rain, Ozone hole
- Global Pollution and Waste
- Genetic Engineering and its Effects on Humans, Animals, Plants
- Sustainable Alternatives: conservation, reduction, awareness, protest….
Political globalization
- Multi-national organizations: U.N.
- Multi-lateral agencies: IMF, World Bank
- International regulatory bodies: WTO
- International judicial organizations: ICC
- Trans-national agreements: NAFTA
- Multi-national political unions: EU
- Multi-national military structures: NATO
- Non-Governmental Orgs (Greenpeace)
- Transnational Corporations (McDonald,GM)
- Global and Local Protest Movements