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Main Title:
George Washington Autographed Signed Letter

Type of Material: Letter
Personal Name: George Washington and Benjamin Tallmadge
Collection ID: Collection 429
Creator: George Washington
Extent: Folio; 21.5 cm. x 34 cm.
Span Dates: 6 September 1780

ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION

Title
George Washington Autographed Signed Letter
Collection 429

Creator
George Washington

Provenance 
Acquired from Christie's (NY) on Thursday, February 12, 2009. The letter was Lot 48 of Sale 226.

ExtentScope, and Content Note 
Washington, George (b. February 16, 1732, d. December 17, 1799), President of the United States of America (1789-1797).
Letter signed ("G:o Washington"), as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, to Major Benjamin Tallmadge, Headquarters, Bergen County, dated September 16, 1780. 
1 page; folio; docketed upon receipt by Major Tallmadge.
Dimensions: 21.5 x 34 cm. 

Arrangement and Processing Note
Processing completed by completed by Kristen J. Nyitray in January 2002. Updated February 2014.

Language
English. 

Restrictions on Access

The collection is open to researchers without restriction.

Rights and Permissions 

Stony Brook University Libraries' consent as the physical owner of the collection does not address copyright issues that may affect publication rights. It is the sole responsibility of the user of Special Collections and University Archives materials to investigate the copyright status of any given work and to seek and obtain permission where needed prior to publication.

Citation
[Item], George Washington Autographed Signed Letter, 6 September 1780, Special Collections and University Libraries, Stony Brook University Libraries.

View this document at: http://guides.library.stonybrook.edu/culper-spy-ring

History 

Stony Brook University acquired a second secret wartime letter from George Washington to Benjamin Tallmadge at Christie's in Manhattan on Thursday, February 12, 2009. The letter was Lot 48 of Sale 2265: "Americana and Printed Manuscript." The letters document Long Island's critical role during the American Revolution and specifically the actions of the Culper Spy Ring, which was based in Setauket, New York.

The acquisition was made possible with private funds from a private donor, Dr. Henry Laufer (a former professor of mathematics at Stony Brook University) and from the New York State Legislature through Assemblyman Steven Englebright. A series of educational outreach activities have been implemented in partnership with local historical societies and non-profit organizations.

WASHINGTON PROMISES TO REWARD HIS FAVORITE SPY: "I SHALL THINK MYSELF BOUND TO...PROCURE HIM A COMPENSATION..." 

This is one of the most remarkable letters Washington wrote about the valuable American spy Robert Townsend--code named "Culper, Jr."--who operated within British-occupied New York. Washington shows his great regard for this agent by pledging generous support after the war. "It is impossible for me, circumstanced as matters are, to give a positive answer to C---- Junior's request, as I cannot, without knowing his views, tell what are his expectations. Of this, both you and he may rest assured, that should he continue Serviceable and faithful, and should the issue of our Affairs prove as favorable as we hope, I shall be ready to recommend him to the public, if public employ should be his aim, and if not, that I shall think myself bound to represent his conduct in the light it deserves, and procure him a compensation of another kind. I shall take the first opportunity of sending you a further sum of money for contingencies." 

Washington placed great reliance on Culper, Jr. and found his information to be first rate. "His accounts are intelligent, clear and satisfactory," he told Tallmadge on February 5, 1780. "I rely upon his intelligence." We can piece together the kinds of information Culper, Jr. provided by examining the intelligence requests made by Washington. For example, there is a memorandum in Washington's papers dating from September 1780, "Instructions for Spies Going into New York" that reads in part: "Get into the City. There, in the best manner possible, learn the designs of the Enemy. Whether they mean to evacuate New York wholly or in part, or continue the Army there. A discovery of this kind will be best made by attending a little to the conduct of [leading Tory merchants] Delancey, Bayard, Matthews" (Fitzpatrick, 20:104). Washington particularly wanted any news on movements of British supplies and baggage. This is precisely the sort of intelligence that Culper, Jr./Townsend was so well placed to gather. As a prominent merchant he could roam the docks and wharves without suspicion, keeping an eye open for shipping activity, talking with British officers and well-connected Tories. He also had business interests on Long island which further broadened his contacts, and provided excuses for meeting with other members of his spy ring, such as Abraham Woodhull ("Culper, Sr."), and the couriers who passed his intelligence to Washington. 

The reference in this letter to compensation or indeed public recognition is particularly intriguing, since Townsend never claimed any credit for his wartime exploits, and took his secrets with him to his grave in 1838. Washington, for security reasons, did not want to know Culper, Jr.'s identity during the war. Major Tallmadge (Washington's chief officer for espionage matters) was Townsend's handler, and all communications between Washington and Townsend went through Tallmadge. It was only in the 1930s that historian Morton Pennypacker uncovered Culper, Jr.'s true identity after comparing samples of Culper Jr.'s letters with the handwriting of a hitherto obscure merchant, Robert Townsend. 

The timing of this letter is also significant: the day after Washington sent this letter he traveled to Hartford for a week's discussion with the Comte de Rochambeau about joint Franco-American actions. Washington returned to West Point on September 25, only to receive disastrous intelligence from a completely unexpected source: Benedict Arnold's treason and his attempt to surrender the garrison at West Point. 

Published in The writings of George Washington: from the original manuscript sources, 1745-1799, prepared under the direction of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission and published by authority of Congress; John C. Fitzpatrick, editor (20:61).

Transcription

Head Quarters, Bergen County, 16th Sept. 1780.

Dear Sir

I have recd. yours of the 13th: as I have
your several late favors with their enclosures. It is im:
:possible for me, circumstanced as matters are, to give
a positive answer to C-- juniors request; as I cannot,
without knowing his views, tell what are his expectations.
Of this, both you and he may rest assured, that should
he continue servicable and faithful, and should the
issue of our Affairs prove as favorable as we hope, I
shall be ready to recommend him to the public, if
public employ shall be his aim, and if not, that
I shall think myself bound to represent his conduct
in the light it deserves, and procure him a compen:
sation of another kind.
I shall take the first good opportunity of
sending you a further sum of Money for contin:
:gencies.

I am Dear Sir
Your most ob.' Servt
G. o Washington

Major Tallmadge 


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